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1767.

September

Wednes.

Cocoa-not

Island

Leigh's

Island.

determined to go into the harbour with the (hip, and place her so as to protect the men who should be employed to fell the trees, and cut off the cabbages and the fruit. We failed from English Cove with the land breeze early in the morning, and in the evening secured the ship a-breast of the grove, where the cocoanuts had been gathered, at a very little distance from the shore. Here we procured above a thousand cocoanuts, and as many of the cabbages as we could use while they were good ; and I would have staid long enough to have given my people all the refreshments they wanted, but the season of the year made the shortest delay dangerous. There was too much reason to suppose that the lives of all on board depended upon our getting to Batavia while the monsoon continued to blow from the eastward ; there was indeed time enough for any other ship to have gone three times the distance, but I knew it was scarcely sufficient for the Swallow in her present condition : and that if we should be obliged to continue here another season, it would probably become impossible to navigate her at all, especially as she had but a single sheathing, and her bottom was not filled with nails, so that the worms would have eaten through it; besides that our provision would long before that time have been totally exhausted. I therefore weighed anchor and quitted this station, which was much the best that had been our lot during the whole run from the Streight of Magellan, on the 9th in the morning, at break of day, with a light breeze from the land.

To this place we gave the name of Carteret's Harhour; it is about W. N. W. four leagues from English Cove, and formed by two islands and the main; the largest, which is to the N. W. we called CocoaNut Island, and the other, which is to the S. E. we called Leigh's Island. Between these two islands there is shoal water, and each of them forms an entrance into the harbour; the south-east or weather entrance is formed by Leigh's Island, and in this there is a rock that appears above water, to which we gave thenameof Booby Rock; the passage is between the rock and the island, nor is the rock dangerous, there being deep water close to it. The north-west, or lee-entrance, is formed by Cocoa-nut Island,

and

and this is the best, because there is good anchor- <767age in it, the water in the other being too deep: we entered the harbour by the south-east passage, and went out of it by the north-west. At the south-east end of the harbour there is a large cove, which is secure from all winds, and fit to haul a ship into. Into this cove a river seemed to empty itself, but our boat did not examine it. In the north-west part of the harbour there is another cove, which our boat did examine, and from which she brought us very good water. this also is fit for a ship to haul into, and very convenient for wooding and watering: she may lie in any depth from thirty to five fathoms, and any distance from the shore, with a bottom of soft mud. The harbour runs about S. E. by S. and N. W. by N. and is about three miles long, and four cables length broad. We anchored in thirty fathoms, near the north-west entrance, and a-breast of the trees on Cocoa-nut Island.

CHAP. VI

Discovery of a Streight dividing the Land called Nova
Britannia into two Islands, with a Description of se-
veral small Islands that lie in the Passage, and the
Land on each Side, with the Inhabitants.

WHEN we got about four leagues off the land,
after leaving this harbour, we met with a
strong gale at E. S. E. a direction just contrary to that
which would have favoured our getting round the land
and doubling Cape Saint Maria. We found at the
fame time a strong current, setting us to the N. W.
into a deep bay or gulph, which Dampier calls Saint
George's Bay, and which lies between Cape Saint
George and Cape Orford. As it was impossible to
get round the land, against both the wind and current,
and follow the track of Dampier, I was under the ne-
cessity of attempting a passage to the westward by this
gulph, and the current gave me hopes that I should
succeed. When I had got, therefore, about five miles
to the south-west os Cocoa-nut Island, I steered to the
N. W. and the N. N. W. as the land trends, and had
soon good reason to believe that what has been called
Saint George's Bay, and thought to be formed by two

points

i767- points of the fame island, was indeed a channel bee*^Zl^J tween two islands, and so the event proved it to be.

Before it was dark, we found this channel divided by a pretty large island, whichl called the Duke Of York's Island, and some smaller islands that were scattered about it. On the southermost side of the main, or the largest of the two islands that are divided by the channel or streight, which I left in possession of its ancient name, New Britain, there is some high land, and three remarkable hills close to each other, which I called the Mot Her And Daughters. The Mother is the middlemost and largest, and behind them we faw a vast column of smoke, so that probably one of them is a volcano: they are easily seen in clear weather at the distance oF twenty leagues, and will then, by those who do not know them, be taken for islands: they seem to lie far inland, and the Mother bears about west from the Duke of York's Island. To the east of these hills there is a point making like a cape land, which I called Cape Palliser; and another to the westward, which I called Cape Stephens. Cape Stephens is the northermost part of New Britairi. North of this Cape is an island, which I called the Isleof Isle Of Man. Cape Palliser and Cape Stephens bear M*D" about N. W. and S. E. of each other; and between them is a bay, the land of which near the water-side is low, pleafant, and level, and gradually rises, as it retires towards the Mother and Daughters, into very lofty hills, in general covered with vast woods, but having many clear spots like plantations intermixed. Upon this part of the country we faw many fires in the night, and have therefore reason to suppose that it is well inhabited. The Duke of York's Island lies between the two points, Cape Palliser and Cape Stephens. As it was not fase to attempt either of the passages into which the Streight was divided by this island in the dark, we brought to for the night, and kept sounding, but had no ground with one hundred and forty fathoms. The Streight here, including the two passages, is about fifteen leagues broad. The land of the Duke of York's Island is level, and has a delightsul appearance: inland it is covered with lofty woods, and near the water-side are the houses of the natives, which stand

not not far from each other, among groves of cocoa-nut »767trees, so that the whole forms a prospect the most y^J^L^j beautiful and romantic that can be imagined. We saw many of their canoes, which are very neatly made, and in the morning, soon aster I made fail, some of them came off towards^ the (hip; but as we had a fresh gale at that time, we could not stay for them. Thuri'd. 10. The latitude of this island is 40 9' S. longitude 151° 20' E. and it is five and twenty leagues distant from Cape George. As I coasted not New Britain, but the northermost coast of the Streight, I passed through the passage that is formed by that coast, and the corresponding side of the Duke of York's Island, which is about eight leagues broad, and may be considered as the First Narrow of the Streight ; and then steering N. W. by W. all night, we found at day-break Friday ii. that we had lost sight of the southermost island, or New Britain, and having now ascertained the supposed bay to be a streight, I called it Saint George's St. Geor. Channel, and to the northern island I gave thechanntlname of Nova Hibernia, or New Ireland.New The weather being hazy, with a strong gale and sudden gusts, I continued to steer along the coast of New Ireland, at about the distance of six leagues from the shore, till I came off the west end of it, and then, altering our course, I steered W. N. W. I could plainly perceive, that we were set along the shore by a strong westerly current. At noon, we found by observation that we were much to the northward of the log; but as it was impossible the current could set due north, as that would be right against the land, I was obliged, for the correction of my account, to allow no less than four and twenty miles W. N. W. which is nearly as the land lies along the more. At this time we had about half a point east variation ; and at night we discovered a fine large island, forming a streight or passage with New Ireland. As it was very dark and squally, with rain, we brought to, not knowing to what danger the navigation of this Streight might expose us. The night was tempestuous, with much thunder and lightning, but about two in the morning Sattrrd. 12. the weather cleared: the gusts settled into a light breeze, and the moon shone very bright. At this time Vol. I. X therefore

»767- therefore we made fail again, and found a strong cur=P"m ". rent setting us to the westward, through the passage of the Second Narrow, which is about five leagues wide. The island, which has a pleasant appearance, and is Sandwich very populous, I called Sandwich Island, in hoisland. nous 0f the Earl, now first Lord of the Admiralty: it is larger than the Duke of York's Island, and there feem to be some good bays and harbours upon the coast. On the north part of it there is a remarkable peak, like a sugar loas; and opposite to it, upon the coast of New Ireland, there is just such another: they are distant about five leagues, in the direction of S. by E. I E. and N. by W. £ W. All the while we lay to off this island, we heard an incessant noise in.the night, like the beating of a drum: and being becalmed just as we got through the Streight, ten canoes put off from New Ireland, with about one hundred and fifty n*«i on board, and rowed towards the ship; they came near enough to exchange some trisles with us, which were conveyed at the end of a long stick, but none of them would venture on board. They feemed to prefer such iron as we gave them to every thing else, though none of it was manufactured except nails; for, as I observed before, we had no cutlery ware on board. The canoes were very long and very narrow, with an outrigger, and some of them were very neatly made: one of them . could not be less than ninety feet long, for it was very little shorter than the ship; it was, notwithstanding, formed of a single tree; it had some carved ornaments about it, and was rowed or paddled by three and thirty men: we saw no appearance of fails. The people are black, and woolly-headed, like Negroes, but have not the slat nose and thick lips; and we thought them much the fame people 3s the inhabitants of Egmont's Island : like them, they were all stark naked, except a few ornaments made of shells upon their arms and legs. They had, however, adopted a practice without which none of our belles and beaus are supposed to be completely drest, for the hair, or rather the wool upon their heads, was very abundantly powdered with white powder: the fashion of wearing powder, therefore, is probably of higher antiquity than it is generally supposed to be, as well as of more extensive insluence; it

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