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SURF, the swell of the sea which breaks upon the shore, or any rock lying near the surface of the water.
SWEEPING, the act of dragging the bight, or loose part of a small rope, along the surface of the ground, in a harbour or road, in order to hook and recover some anchor, wreck, or other material, sunk at the bottom. It is performed by fastening the two ends of this rope to the sides of two boats, which are a breast of each other, at some distance. To the middle of the rope are suspended two cannon shot, or something which weighs heavy, in order to sink it to the ground; so that, as the boats advance by rowing a-head, the rope drags along the boitem, to hook any thing for which they are searching.
SWEEPS, are long oars, sometimesused on board a sliip to bring her round.
TACK, a rope used to confine the foremost lowest corners of the courses and ft'ay-fails in a fixed position, when the wind crosses the ship's course obliquely.
Tack.-chaih plates, strong links or plates of iron, the lower ends of which are bolted through the ship's side to the timbers, for the purpose of holding the rope called a tack.
Main-tack, the tack of the main-sail.
TAFFAREL, the upper part os a ship's .stern, being a curved piece of wood, usually ornamented with sculpture.
TAUGHT, the state of beingextended orstretched out. It is usually applied*! a rope or sail, in opposition to slack.
TENDING, the movement by which a ship turns or swings round her anchor in a tide-way, at the beginning of the slood or ebb.
THWART, the feat or bench of a boat, whereon the rowers fit to manage the oars.'
TILER, the bar or lever employed to turn the rudder in steering.:
TIMBERS, the ribs of a ship.
TRANSOMS, certains beams or timbers extended across the stern-post of a ship, to fortify her aster-part, and give it the figure most suitable to the service for which she is calculated.
To TREND, to run off in a certain direction.
TRIM, the state or disposition by which a ship is best calculated for the several purposes of navigation.
TR1PING, the movement by which an anchor is loosened from the bottom by its cable or buoy-ropes.
TRUSSEL or TRESTLE-TREES, two strong bars of timber, fixed horizontally on she opposite sides of the lower mast-head, to support the frame of the top, and the weight of the top-mast.
VEERING, the same as wearing, which fee.
To Veer arway the cable, is to slacken it, that it may run out of the ship.
WAKE, the print or track impressed by the course of a ship on the surface 5f the water.
WALES, an assemblage of strong planks extended along a ship's side, throughout her whole length, at different heights, and serving to reinforce the decks, and form the curves, by which the vessel appears light and graceful on the water.
WARP, a small rope, employed occasionally to remove a ship from one place to another, in a port, road, or river. And hence,
To Warp', is to change the situation of a ship, by pulling her from one part of a harbour, &c. to some other, by means of warps.
WASH-BOARD, a broad thin plank, fixed occasionally on the top of a boat's side, so as to raise it, and be removed at pleasure. It is used to prevent the sea from breaking into the vessel, particularly when the surface is rough.
To WEATHER, is to fail to windward of some ship, bank, or head-land.
To WEAR, the fame as to veer; to perform the operation by which a ship, in changingther course from one board to the other, turns her stern to windward ; it is the opposite to tacking, in which ihe head is turned to the windward and the stern to the leeward.
WINDLASS, a machine used in merchant ships, to heave up the anchors. It is a large cylindrical piece of timber, supported at the two ends by two frames of wood, placed on the opposite sides of the deck, near the fore-mast, and is turned about as upon an axis, by levers, called handspecs, which are for this purpose thrust into holes bored through the body of the machine.
WOOLDING, the act of winding a piece of rope about a mast or yard, to support it in a place where it may have been fijbed or scarfed; or when it is composed of several pieces united into one solid. Y.
YARD, a long piece of timber suspended upon the masts of a ship, to extend the sails to the wind.
YAW, the movement by which a ship deviates from the line of her course towards the right or left in steering.
The Passage from the Downs to Rio de Janeiro.
[The longitude in this voyage is reckoned from the meridian of London, west to 180 degrees, and east asterwards.]
ON the 21st of June 1764, I failed from the June 1764. Downs, with his Majesty's (hip the Dolphin, ~~r^7~~* and the Tamar Frigate, which I had received orders to take under my command: as I was coming down the river, the Dolphin got a-ground ; I therefore put into Plymouth, where she was docked, but did not appear to have received any damage. At this place we changed some of our men; and having paid the people two months wages in advance, I hoisted the broad pendant, and sailed again on the 3d of July; on the T JS'3. 4th we were off the Lizard, and made the best of our wednes. 4. -way with a fine breeze, but had the mortification to find the Tamar a very heavy sailer. In the night of Friday 6. Friday the 6th, the officer of the first watch saw either a ship on fire, or an extraordinary phenomenon which greatly resembled it, at some distance: it continued to blaze for about half an hour, and then disappeared. In the evening of Thursday, July the 12th, we sawThursd. t& the rocks near the island of Madeira, which our people call the Deserters; from desertes, a name which has Vol. L B * been
July, 1764. been givenjhem from their barren and desolate appear
'- ~*~ 'ance : the next day we stood in for the road of Funchiale, where, about three o'clock in the afternoon, we
Saturd. 14. came to an anchor. In the morning of Saturday the 14th, I waited upon the Governor, who received me with great politeness, and faluted me with eleven guns,
Sunday 15. which I returned from the ship. The next day, he returned my visit at the house of the Consul, upon which I faluted him with eleven guns, which he returned from the fort. 1 found here his Majesty's ship the Crown,- and the Ferret sloop, who also faluted the broad pendant.
Having completed our water, and procured all the refreshment I was able for the companies of both the ships, every man having twenty pounds weight of
Thursd. 19. onions for his sea stock, we weighed anchor on ThursSaturd. 21. day the 19th, and proceeded on our voyage. On Saturday the 21st, we made the Hland of Palma, one of the Canaries, and soon after examining our water, we found it would be necessary to touch at one of the Cape de Verd islands for a fresh supply. During the whole of our course from the Lizard, we observed that no fish followed the ship, which I judged to be owing to her Thursd. i6. being sheathed with copper. By the 26th, our water was hecome foul, and stunk intolerably, but we purified it with a machine, which had been put on board for that purpose : it was akind of ventilator, hy which air was forced through the water in a continued stream, as long as it was necessary. Friday ij. In the morning of the 27th, we made the island of Sal, one of the Cape de Verds, and seeing several turtle upon the water, we hoisted out our jolly boat, and attempted to strike them, but they all went down before our people could come within reach of them. Saturd. %%' On the morning of the 28th, we were very near the Sunday ao ^anc' °f Bona Vista, the-riexX$$y of the isleofMay, and on Monday the 30th, we came to an anchor in on . 30. port praya bay. The rainy season was already set in, which renders this place very unfase : a large swell that rolls in from the southward, makes a frightsul surf upon the shore, and there is reason every hour to expect a tornado, of which, as it is very violent, and blows directly in, the consequences are likely to be fatal; so that after the 15th of August no ship comes hither till
the the rainy season is over, which happens in November; for this reason I made all possible haste to fill my water' and get away. I procured three bullocks for the people, but they were little better than carrion, and the weather was so hot, that the flesh stunk in a sew hours after they were killed.
On Thursday the 2d of August, we got again under Thursd. a. fail, with a large cargo of fowls, lean goats, and monkies, which the people contrived to procure for old shirts, jackets, and other articles of the like kind. The intolerable heat, and almost incessant rain, very soon affected our health, and the men began to fall down in severs, notwithstanding all my attention and diligence to make them shift themselves before they flept, when they were wet.
On Wednesday the 8 th, the Tamar fired a gun,wednes. 8. upon which we shortened fail till shecame up: we found that she had suffered no damage but the carrying away of her top-fail-yard; however, as we were obliged to make an easy fail till she got up another, and the wind seemed to be coming again to the southward, we lost a good deal of way. We continued, to our great mortification, to observe that no fish would come near enough to our copper bottom for us to strike, though we faw the sea as it were quickened with them at a little distance. Ships in these hot latitudes generally take fish in plenty, but, except sharks, we were not able to catch one.
No event worthy of notice happened till Tuesday Septem. the i ith of September, when, about three o'clock in Tueia-zlthe afternoon, we faw Cape Frio, on the coast of Brazil; and about noon, on Thursday the 13th, we an- Tborsd. 13chored in eighteen fathom, in the great Road of Rio de Janeiro. The city, which is large, and makes a handsome appearances is. governed by the Viceroy of Brazil, who is perhaps, in fact, as absolute a Sovereign as any upon earth. When I visited him, he received me in great form ; above sixty officers were drawn up before the palace, as well as a captain's guard, who were men of a good appearance, and extremely well cloathed : his excellency, with a number of persons of the first distinction, belonging to the place, met me at .- the head of the stairs, upon which fifteen guns were fired from the nearest port: we then entered the room B 2 of