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SETTING, the act of observing the fituation of any distant object by the compass, in order to discover the angle which it makes with the nearest meridian.
SHEET, a rope fastened to one or both the lower corners of a fail, to extend and retain it in a particular station.
SHROUDS, a range of large ropes, extended from the malt heads to the right and left side of the ship, to support the masts, and enable them to carry fail.
SKIDS, or Skeeds, are long compasling pieces of timber, formed so as to answer the vertical curve of a ship's fide. They are notched below so as to fit closely upon the wales; and as they are intended to preserve the planks of the side, when any weighty body is hoisted or lowered, they extend from the main-wale to the top of the side, and they are retained in this position by bolts or spike-nails.
SPRING, a crack or breach running transversely or obliquely through any part of a mast or yard, so as to render it unsafe to carry the usual quantity of fail thereon.
SPRING is also a rope paffed out of one extremity of a ship, and attached to a cable proceeding from the other, when the lies at anchor. It is usually done to bring the ship’s broad-side, or battery of cannon, to bear upon some diftant object.
SPRITSAIL, a fail attached to a yard which hangs under the bow sprit.
SQUALL, a sudden and violent blaft of wind, usually occasioned by the interruption and reverberation of the wind from high mountains.
STANCHION, a sort of small pillar of wood or iron, used for various purposes in a ship; as, to support the decks, the quarter-rails, the nettings, and awnings.
STANDING, the movement by which the ihip advances towards a certain object, or departs from it.
STARBOARD, the right side of a ship when the eye of the spectator is directed forward.
To STAY, the same as to tack; the contrary to wear, which see; hence the phrase to miss stays, when she fails in the operation.
STIFF, the quality by which a ship is enabled to carry a sufficient quantity of fail, without hazard of oversetting:
· STREAKS, or STRAKES, the uniform ranges of planks on the bottom and sides of a ship.
TO STRIKE, to run a-shore, or to beat upon the ground in passing over a bank or shallow.
STUDDING-SAILS, certain light fails extended, in moderate and steady breezes, beyond the skirts of the principal fails, where they appear as wings upon the yard-arms,
SURF, the swell of the sea which breaks upon the shore, or any rock lying near the surface of the water.
SWEEPING, the act of dragging the bight, or loose part of a small rope, along the surface of the ground, in a harbour or road, in order to hook and recover some anchor, wreck, or other material, funk at the bottom. It is performed by fastening the two ends of this rope to the fides of two boats, which are a breast of each other, at some distance. To the middle of the rope are suspended two cannon fhot, or something which weighs heavy, in order to sink it to the ground, so that, as the boats advance by rowing a-head, the rope drags along the bottom, to hook any thing for which they are searching.
SWEEPS, are long oars, sometimes used on board a ship to bring her round.
T. TACK, a rope used to confine the foremost lowest corners of the courses and stay-fails in a fixed pofition, when the wind crosses the ship’s course obliquely.
TACK-CHAIN plates, strong links or plates of iron, the lower ends of which are bolted through the ship's side to the timbers, for the purpose of holding the rope called a tack.
MAIN-TACK, the tack of the main-fail.
TAFFAREL, the upper part of a ship’s ftern, being a curved piece of wood, usually ornamented with sculpture.
TAUGHT, the state of being extended or stretched out. It is usually applied o a rope or fail, in opposition to slack.
TENDING, the movement by which a fhip turns or swings round her anchor in a tide-way, at the beginning of the flood or ebb.
THWART, the seat or bench of a boat, whereon the rowers fit to manage the oars.
TILER, the bar or lever employed to turn the rudder in steering
TIMBERS, the ribs of a ship.
TRANSOMS, certains beams or timbers extended across the ftern-post of a fhip, to fortify her after-part, and give it the figure most suitable to the service for which she is calculated.
To TREND, to run off in a certain direction.
TRIM, the state or disposition by which a ship is best calculated for the several purposes of navigation.
TRIPING, the movement by which an anchor is loosened from the bottom by iis cable or buoy-ropes.
TRUSSEL or TRESTLE-TREES, iwo strong bass of timber, fixed horizontally on the opposite sides of the lower maft-head, to support the frame of the top, and the weight of the top-maft.
To Veer away the cable, is to lacken it, that it may run out of the ship.
W. WAKE, the print or track impreffed by the course of a fhip on the surface of the water.
WALES, an assemblage of strong planks extended along a ship's side, throughout her whole length, at different heights, and serving to reinforce the decks, and form the curves, by which the vessel appears light and graceful on the water.
WARP, a small rope, employed occasionally to remove a fhip from one place to another, in a port, road, or river. And hence,
To WARP, is to change the situation of a ship, by pulling her from one part of a harbour, &c. to some other, by means of warps:
WASH-BOARD, a broad thin plank, fixed occasionally on the top of a boat's side, so as to raise it, and be removed at pleasure. It is used to prevent the sea from breaking into the veffel, particularly when the surface is rough.
To WEATHER, is to fail to windward of some ship, bank, or head-land.
Tó WEAR, the same as to veer; to perform the operation by which a fhip, in changing
her course from one board to the other, turns her stern to windward; it is the opposite to tacking, in which ihe head is turned to the windward and the stern to the leeward.
WINDLASS, a machine used in merchant ships, to heave up the anchors. It is a large cylindrical piece of timber, supported at the two ends by two frames of wood, placed on the opposite sides of the deck, near the fore-maft, and is turned about as upon an axis, by levers, called handspecs, which are for this purpose ihrust into holes bored through the body of the machine.
WOOLDING, the act of winding a piece of rope about a mast or yard, to support it in a place where it may have been fijbed or scarfed; or when it is composed of feveral pieces united into one folid.
Y. YARD, a long piece of timber suspended upon the mafts of a ship, to extend the fails to the wind.
YAW, the movement by which a ship deviates froin the line of her course towards the right or left in steering.
The Pasage from the Downs to Rio de Janeiro.
[The longitude in this voyage is reckoned from the meridian
of London, west to 180 degrees, and east afterwards.]
N the 21st of June 1764, I failed from the June 1764,
and the Tamar Frigate, which I had received orders to take under my command : as I was coming down the river, the Dolphin got a-ground ; I therefore put into Plymouth, where she was docked, but did not appear to have received any damage. At this place we changed some of our men; and having paid the people two months wages in advance, I hoisted the broad pendant, and failed again on the 3d of July; on them. July. 4th we were off the Lizard, and made the best of our Wednel. .. way with a fine breeze, but had the mortification to find the Tamar a very heavy failer. In the night of Friday 6. Friday the 6th, the officer of the first watch saw either a ship on fire, or an extraordinary phenomenon which greatly resembled it, at some distance: it continued to blaze for about half an hour, and then disappeared. In the evening of Thursday, July the 12th, we saw Thursd. 12. the rocks near the island of Madeira, which our people call the Deserters; from defertes, a name which has VOL. I.