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'767- these places, was generally well paved with large round ^_-J—_i stones, but it appeared not to be much trodden, for the grafs every where grew up between them. I endeavoured, with particular attention, to discover whether they had a religious worship among them, but never could find the least traces of any.
The boats or canoes of these people are of three difserent sorts. Some are made out of a single tree, and carry from two to six men: these are used chiefly for fishing, and we constantly faw many of them busy upon the reef: some were constructed of planks, very dexterously sewed together: these were of different sizes, and would carry from ten to forty men. Two of them were generally lashed together, and two masts set up between them; if they were single, they had an out-rigger on one side, and only one mast in the middle. With these vessels they fail far beyond the sight of land, probably to other islands, and bring home plantains, bananas, and yams, which seem also to be more plenty upon other parts of this island, than that off which the ship lay. A third sort seem to be intended principally for pleasure and show r they are very large, but have no fail, and in shape resemble the gondolas of Venice: the middle is covered with a large awning, and some of the people sit upon it, some under it. None of these vessels came near the ship, except on the first and second day after our arrival; but we faw, three or sour times a week, a procession of eight or ten of them passing at a distance, with streamers flying, and a great number of small canoes attending them, while many hundreds of people ran a-breast of them along the shore. They generally rowed to the outward point of a reef which lay about sour miles to the westward of us, where they stayed about an hour, -~ frtid then returned. These processions, however, are
never made but in fine weather, and all the people on board are dressed; though in the other canoes they have only a piece of cloth wrapped round their middle. Those who rowed and steered were dressed in white; those who fat upon the awning and under it in white and red, and two men, who were mountedon the prow of each vessel, were dressed in red only. We sometimes went out to observe them in our boats, and though we
wer; were never nearer than a mile, we faw them with our '7*7glasses as distinctly as if we had been upon the spot. . July
The plank of which these vessels are constructed, is made by splitting a tree, with the grain, into as many thin pieces as they can. They first sell the tree with a kind of hatchet, or adze, made of a tough greenish kind of stone, very dexterously fitted into a handle ; it is then cut into such lengths as are required for the plank, one end of which is heated till it begins to crack, and then with wedges of hard wood they split it down: some of these planks are two seet broad, and from 15 to 20 seet long. The fides are smoothed with adzes of the fame materials and construction, but of a smaller size. Six or eight men are sometimes at work upon the fame plank .together, and, as their tools presently lose their edge, every man has by him a cocoa nut-shell filled with water, and a flat stone, with which he sharpens his adze almost every minute. These planks are generally brought to the thickness of about an inch, and are afterwards fitted to the boat with the fame exactness that would be expected from an expert joiner. To fasten these planks together, holes are bored with a piece of bone that is fixed into a stick for that purpose, a use to which our nails were afterwards applied with great advantage, and through these holes a kind of plaited cordage is passed, so as to hold the planks strongly together: the seams are caulked with dried rushes, and the^whole outside of the vessel is payed with a gummy juice, which some oftheir trees produce in great plenty, and which is a very good succedaneum for pitch.
The wood which they use for their large canoes, is that of the apple-tree, which grows very tall and strait. - Several of them, that we measured, were near eight seet in the girth, and from 20 to 40 to the branches, with very little diminution in the size. Our carpenter faid, that in other respects it was not a good wood for the purpose, being very light. The small canoes are nothing more than the hollowed trunk of the breadfruit tree, which is still more light and spongy. The trunk of the bread-fruit tree is six seet in girth, and about 20 seet to the brandies. jf
1Z67- Their principal weapons are stones, thrown either
, "Z'j with the hand or sling, and bludgeons; for though
they have bows and arrows, the arrows, are only fit to
knock down a bird, none of them being pointed, but
headed only with a round.stone.
I did not fee one turtle all.the while I lay off this island; but upon shewing some small ones which I brought from Queen Charlotte's Island, to the inhabitants, they made signs that they had them of a much larger size. I very much regretted my having lost our he-goat, which died soon aster we left Saint Iago, and that neither of our she-goats, of which we had- two? -were with kid. If the he-goat had lived, I would have put them all on shore at this place, and I would have left a she-goat here if either of them had been with kid; and I doubt not,' but that in a few years they would have stocked the .island.
The climate here appears to be very good, and the island to be one of the most healthy as well as delightful spots in the world. We saw no appearance of disease among the inhabitants. The bills are covered with wood, and the vallies with herbage; and the air in general is so pure, that notwithstanding the heat, our slesh meat kept very well two days, and our fish one. We met with no frog, toad, scorpion, centipied, or serpent of any kind: and the only troublesome infects that we saw were ants, of which there were but few.
The south-east part of the island feems to be better cultivated and inhabited than where we lay; for we saw every day boats come round from thence laden with plantains and other fruit, and we always found greater plenty, and a lower price, soon after their arrival than before.
The tide rises and falls very little, and being governed by the winds, is very uncertain; though they generally blow from the E. to the S. S. E. and for the most part a pleasant breez.e.
The benefit fhat we received while we lay off this • island, with respect to the health pf the ship's company, was beyond our most sanguine expectations, for we had not now an invalid on board, except the two I lieutenants and myself, and we were recovering, though (lill in a very feehle condition.
It is certain that none of our .people contracted the »767venereal diseafe here, and therefore, as they bad free ^jLJ, commerce with great numbers of the women, there is the greatest probability that it was not then known in the country. It was, however, found here by Captain Cook, in the Endeavour; and as no European vessel is known to have visited this island before Captain Cook's arrival, but the Dolphin, and the Boudeuse and Etoil, commanded by M. Bougainville, the reproach of having contaminated with that dreadful pest a race of happy people, to whom its miseries had till then been unknown, must be due either to him or to , me, to England or to France; and I think myself happy to be able to exculpate myself and my country beyond the possibility of doubt.
It is well known, that the Surgeon on board his Majesty's ships keeps a list of the persons who are sick on board, specifying their diseases, and the time when they cam? under his care, and when they were (discharged. It happened that I was once at the pay-table on board a ship, when several sailors objected to the payment of the Surgeon, alledging, that although he had discharged them from the list, and reported them to be cured, yet their cure was incomplete. From this time, it has been my constant practice when the Surgeon reported a man to be cured, who had been upon the sick fist, to call the man before me, and ask him whether the report was true: if he alledged that any symptoms of his complaint remained, I continued him upon the list; if not, I required him, as a confirmation of the Surgeon's report, to sign the book, which was always done in my presence. A copy of the sick list, on board the Dolphin, during this voyage, signed by every man in my presence, when he was discharged well, in confirmation of the Surgeon's report, written in my own hand, and confirmed by my affidavit, I have deposited in the Admiralty; by which it ap~ pears, that the last man on board the (hip, in her voyage outward, who was upon the sick list for the venereal diseafe, except one who was sent to England in the Store ship, was discharged cured, and signed the book on the 27 th of December, 1 766, near six months be"fore our arrival at Otaheite, which was on the 19th of
J767- June, 1767; and that the first man who was upon the . ^ list for that disease, in our return home, was entered on the 26th of February, 1768, six months aster we left the island, which was on the 26th of July 1767; so that the (hip's company was entirely free fourteen months within one day, the very middle of which time we spent at Otahtite; and the man who was first entered as a venereal patient, on our return home, was known to have contracted the disease at the Cape of Good Hope, where we then lay.
Passage from Otaheite to 'tinian, with some Account of several other Islands that were discovered in the South Seas.
Mmd'?t7-T TAVING made fair from King George the J. X Third's Island, we proceeded along the shore of the Duke of York's Island, at the distance of about two miles. There appeared to be good bays in every part of it, and in the middle a fine harbour; but I did not think it worth while to go on shore. The middle and west end is very mountainous, the east end is lower, and the coast just within the beach is covered with cocoa-nut, bread-fruit, apple, and plantain trees.
Tuesi). 28. At day-light, the next morning, we saw land, for which we made sail, and ran along the lee-side of it. On the weather side there were very great breakers, and the lee-side was rocky, but in many places there appeared to be good anchorage. We saw but few inhabitants, and they appeared to live in a manner very different from those os King George's Island, their habitations being only small huts. We saw many cocoanut and other trees upon the shore; but all of them had their heads blown away, probably in a hurricane. This island is about six miles long, and has a mountain of considerable height in the middle, which seems to be fertile. It lies in latitude 170 28'S. and longi
sirChar. tude, by our last observation, i5i°4'W. and I call
lfl"nd"SS ed it Sir Charles Saunders's Island.
Wedn. 19, On the 29th, the variation of the compass, by azimuth, was 70 52'E; and early the next morning, -. at