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notice of any thing. About 10 o'clock we were got 1767. without the reef, and a fresh breeze springing up, our JulxIndian friends, afid particularly the Queen, once more bade us farewel, with such tenderness of affection and grief, as filled both my heart and my eyes.
At noOn, the' harbour from which we failed bore S. E. i E. distant about twelve miles. It lies in latitude 17° 30' SI longitude 150° W. and I gave it the name of Port Royal Harbour.
A more particular Account of the Inhabitants ofOtaheite, and of .their domestic Life, Manners, and Arts.
HAVING lain off this island from the 24th of June to the 27th of July, I shall now give the best account of" its inhabitants, with their manners aiid arts, thatl'can; but having been in a very bad state of health the whble"time', and for great part of it confined to my bed, it will of necessity be much less; accurate and particular than I might otherwise have made it.
The inhabitants of this island are a stout, well-madej active, and comely people. The stature of the men, in generals is' from five'seet seven to five seet ten inches, though a sew individuals are taller, and a sew shorter; that of the women from five seet to five seet fix. The complexion of the'men is tawney, but those that go upon the water are much redder than those who live oil shore.' Their hair in general is black, but in some it is brown,' in some red, and others slaxen, which is remarkable, becaiise the hair of all other natives of Asia, Africa, and America, is black, without a single exception.' It is generally tied up, either in one bunch, in the middle of the head, or in two, one on each side, but some wear it loose, and it then curls very strongly: in the children of hoth sexes it is generally slaxen. They have no combs, yet their hair is very neatly dressed, and those who had combs from us, made good use of them. It is a univerfal custom to anoint the head with cocoanut oil, in which a root has been scraped that smells something like roses. The women are all handsome, and some' of them extremely beautisul. Chastity does not scerrito be considered as a virtue among them, for they
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1767- not only readily and openly trafficked with our people Jul)s- for personal favours, but were brought down by their fathers and brothers for that purpose: they were, however, conscious of the value of beauty, and the size of the nail that was demanded for the enjoyment of the lady, was always in proportion to her charms. The men who came down to the side of the river, at the fame time that they presented the girl, shewed a stick of the size of the nail that was to be her price, and if our people agreed, she was sent over to them, for the men were not permitted to cross the river. This commerce was carried on a considerable time before the officers discovered it ; for while some straggled a little way to receive the lady, the others kept a look-out. When I was acquainted with it, I no longer wondered that the ship was in danger of being pulled to pieces for the nails and iron that held her together, which I had before puzzled myself to account for in vain, the whole ship's company having daily as much fresh provision and fruit as they could eat. Both men and women are not only decently but gracefully clothed, in a kind of white cloth, that is made of the bark of a shrub, and very much re • sembles coarse China paper. Their dress consists of two pieces of this cloth: one of them, a hole having been made in the middle to put the head through, hangs down from the shoulders to the mid-leg before and behind; another pice, which is between four and five yards long, and about one yard broad, they wrap round the body in a very easy manner. This cloth is not woven, but is made, like paper, of the macerated fibres of an inner bark, spread out and beaten together. Their ornaments are feathers, slowers, pieces of shells, and pearls: the pearls are worn chiesly by the women, from whom I purchased about two dozen of a small size: they were "of a good colour, but were all spoiled by boring. Mr. Furneaux saw several in his excursion to the west, but he could purchase none with any thing he had to offer. I observed, that it was here a universal custom both for men and women to have the hinder part of their thighs and loins marked very thick with black lines in various forms. These marks were made by strikingthe teeth of an instrument, somewhat like a comb, just through the skin, and rubbing into the punctures a kind of paste made of foot and oil, which leaves an indelible stain.
The boys and girls, under twelve years of age, are not '767marked; but we observed a sew ot the men whose legs ,."J"J^J were marked in chequers by the fame method, and they appeared to be persons of superior rank and authority. One of the principal attendants upon the Queen appeared much more disposed to imitate our manners than the rest; and our people, with whom he soon became a'favourite, distinguished him by the name of Jonathan. This man Mr. Furneaux clothed compleatly in an English dress, and it fat very easy upon him. Our officers were always carried on shore, it being shoal .water where we landed, and Jonathan, assuming new state with his new finery, made some of his people carry him on shore in the fame manner. He very soon attempted to use a knise and fork at his meals, but at first, when he had stuck a morsel upon his fork, and tried to seed himself with that instrument, he could not guide it, but by the mere force of habit his hand came to his mouth, and the victuals at the end'of the fork went away to his ear. .'''. ..:
Their food consists of pork, poultry, dogs flesh, and fish, bread-fruit, bananas, plantains, yams, apples,. and a sour fruit which, though not pleafant by itself, gives an agreeable relish to roasted bread-fruit, withwhich it is frequently beaten up. They have abundance of rats, but, as far as 1 could discover, these make no part of their food. The river affords them good mullet, but they are neither large nor in plenty. They find conchs, muscles, and other shell-fish on the reef, which they gather at low water, and eat raw with bread-fruit before they come on shore. They have also very fine cray-fish, and they catch with lines, and hooks of mother of pearl, at a little distance from the shore, parrot-fish, groopers, and many other sorts, of which they are so fond that we could seldom prevail' upon them to sell us a sew at any price. They have also nets of an enormous size, with very small meshes, and with these they catch abundance of small fish about the size of fardines ; but while they were using both nets and lines with great success, we could not catch a single fish with either. We procured some of their hooks and lines, but fj>r want of their art we were still difappointed. ,' .
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1767- The manner in which they dress their food is this: J".^. they kindle a fire by rubbing the end of one piece of dry wood upon the fide of another, in the fame manner as our carpenters whet a chissel; then they dig a pit about half a foot deep, and two or three yards in circumference : they pave the bottom with large pebble stones, which they lay down very smooth and even, and then kindle a fire in it with dry wood, leaves, and the husks of the cocoa-nut. When the stones are sufficiently heated, they take out the embers, and rake up the ashes on every side; then they cover the stones with a layer of green cocoa-nut-tree leaves, and wrap up the animal that is to be dressed, in the leaves of the plantain; if it is a small hog they wrap it up whole, if a large one they split it. When it is placed in the pit, they cover it with the hot embers, and lay upon them bread-fruit and yams, which are also wrapped up in the leaves of the plain tain; over these they spread the remainder of the embers, mixing among them some of the hot stones, with more cocoa-nut-tree leaves upon them, and then close all up with earth, so that the heat is kept in. After a time proportioned to the size of what is dressing, the oven's opened, and the meat taken out, which, is tender, full of gravy, and, in my opinion, better in every other respect than when it is dressed any other way. Excepting the fruit, they have no sauce but salt water, nor any knives but shells, with whichthey carve very dexterously, always cutting from them. If is impossible to describe the astonishment they expressed when they saw the Gunner, who, while he kept the market, used to dine on shore, dress his pork and poultry by boiling them in a pot; having, as I have before observed, no vessel that would bear the fire, they had no idea of hot water or its effects: but from the time that the old man was in possession of an iron pot, he and his friends eat boiled meat every day. The iron pots which I asterwards gave to the Queen, and several' of the Chiefs, were also in constant ufe, and brought as many people together as a monster or a puppetshow in a country fair. They appeared to have.no liquor for drinking but water, and to be happily ignorant of the art or fermenting the juice of any vegetable, so as to give it an intoxicating quality: they have, as
has been already observed, the sugar-cane, but they .'767seemed to make no other use of it than to chew, which , J^:t they do not do habitually, but only break a piece off when they happen to pass by a place where it is growing.
Of their domestic lise and amusements, we had not sufficient opportunity to obtain much knowledge, but they appear sometimes to have wars with each other, not only from their weapons, but the scars with which many of them were marked, and some of which appeared to be the remains of very considerable wounds, made with stones, bludgeons, or some other obtuse weapon: by these scars also they appear to be np inconsiderable proficients in surgery, of which indeed we happened to have more direct evidence. One of our seamen, when he was on shore, run a large splinter into his foot, and the Surgeon being on board, one of his comrades endeavoured to take it out with a pen-knise; but after putting the poor sellow to a good deal of paih, was obliged to give it over. Our good old Indian, who happened to be present, then called over one of his countrymen that was standing on the opposite side of the river, who having looked at the seaman's foot, weht immediately down to the beach, and taking up a shell, broke it to a point with his testh; with this instrument, in little more than a minute, he laid open the place, and extracted the splinter; in the mean time the old man, who, as soon as he had called the other over, went a little way into the wood, returned with some gum, which he applied to the wound upon a piece of the cloth that was wrapped round him, and in two days time it was persectly healed. We afterwards learned that this gum was produced by the apple-tree, and our Surgeon procured some of it, and used it as a vulnerary balfam with great success. . .
The habitations of these happy people I have described already; and besides these, we faw several sheds inclosed within a wall, on the outside of which there were several uncouth sigures of men, women, hogs, and dogs, carved on posts, that were driven into the ground. Several of the natives were from time to time seen to enter these places, with a stow pace and dejected countenance, from which we Conjectured that they were. repositories of the dead. The area within the walls oi