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»765- watered at; but it was the worst that we had met "'" ' , with during the voyage, for the water was not only brackish, but full of worms. The road also where the ships lay was a dangerous situation at this season, for the bottom is hard sand and large coral rocks, and the anchor having no hold in the sand, is in perpetual danger of being cut to pieces by the coral; to prevent which as much as possible, I rounded the cables, and buoyed them up with empty water casks. Another precaution also was taught me by experience, for at first I moored, but finding the cables much damaged, I resolved to lie single for the future, that by veering away or heaving in, as we should have more or less wind, we might always keep them from being slack, and consequently from rubbing, and this expedient succeeded to my wish. At the full and change of the moon, a prodigious swell tumbles in here, so that I never saw ships at anchor roll so much as ours did while we lay here; and it once drove in from the westward with such violence, and broke so high upon the reef, that I was obliged to put to sea for a week; for if our cable had parted in the night, and the wind had been upon the shore, which sometimes happens for'Wo or three days together, the ship must inevitably have been lost upon the rocks.
As I was myself very ill with the scurvy, I ordered a tent to be pitched for me, and took up my residence on shore; where we also erected the armourer's forge, and began to repair the iron-work of both the ships. I soon found that the island produced limes, sour oranges, cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit *, guavas, and paupas in great abundance; but we found no water-melons, scurvy-grass, or sorrel.
Notwithstanding the fatigue and distress that we had endured, and the various climates we had passed through, neither of the ships had yet lost a single man since their sailing from England; but while we lay here two died of fevers, a disease .with which many were seized, though we all recovered very fast from the scurvy. I am indeed of opinion that this is one of the most unhealthy spots in the world, at least during
* Ste a particular description of the bread -fruit, at the \ tnd of this volume.
the season in which we were here. The rains were 1765A violent, and almost incessant, and the heat was so great v as to threaten us with suffocation. The thermometer, which was kept on board the ship, generally stood at eighty-six, which is but nine degrees less than the heat of the blood at the heart; and if it had been on shore it would have risen much higher. I had been upon the coast of Guinea, in the West Indies, and upon the island of Saint Thomas, which is under the Line, but I had never felt any such heat as 1 felt here. Besides the inconvenience which we suffered from the -weather, we were incessantly tormented by the slies in the day, and by the musquitos in the night. The island also swarms with centipieds and scorpions, and a large black ant, scarcely inferior to either in the malignity of his bite. Besides these, there were venemous insects without number, altogether unknown to us, by which many of us suffered so severely, that we were asraid to lie down in our beds; nor were those on board in a much better situation than those on shore, for great numbers of those creatures being carried into the ship with the wood, they took possession of every birth, and lest the poor feamen no place of rest either below or upon the deck.
As soon as we were settled in our new habitations, I sent out parties to discover the haunts of the cattle, some of which were found, but at a great distance from the tents, and the beasts were so shy that it was very difficult to get a shot at them. Some of the parties which, when their haunts had been discovered, were sent out to kill them,- were absent three days and nights before they could succeed; and when a bullock had been dragged seven or eight miles through such woods and lawns as have just been described, to the tents, it was generally full of. sly-blows, and stunk so as to be unfit for use : nor was this the worst, for the fatigue of the men in bringing down the carcass, and the intolerable heat they suffered from the climate and the labour, frequently brought on fevers which laid them up. Poultry however we procured upon easier terms; there was great plenty of birds, and they were easily killed ; but the slesh of the best of them
»765- was very ill-tasted, and such was the heat of the climate, "^"' that within an hour aster they were killed it was as green as grass, and (warmed with maggots. Our principal resource for fresh meat, was the wild hog, with -which the island abounds. These creatures are very fierce, and some of them so large that a carcass frequently weighed two hundred pounds. We killed them without much difficulty; but a Black belonging to the Tamar contrived a method to snare them, so that we took great numbers of them alive, which was an unspeakable advantage; for it not only ensured our eating the slesh while it was sweet, but enabled us to fend a good number of them on board as sea-stores.
In the mean time we were very desirous of procuring some beef in an eatable state, with less risk and labour; and Mr. Gore, one of our Mates, at last discovered a pleasant spot upon the north- west part of the island, where cattle were in great plenty, and whence they might be brought to the tents by sea. To this place therefore I dispatched a party, with a tent for their •accommodation, and sent the boats every day to fetch what they should kill; sometimes however there broke such a sea upon the rocks that it was impossible to approach them, and the Tamar's boat unhappily lost three of her best men by attempting it. We were now, upon the whole, pretty well supplied with provisions, especially as we baked fresh bread every day for the sick ; and the fatigue of our people being less, there were fewer ill with the fever: but several of them were so much disordered by eating of a very fine looking fish which we caught here, that their recovery was for a long time doubtful. The author of the account of Lord Anson's Voyage fays, that the people on board the Centurion thought it prudent to abstain from fish, as the few which they caught at their first arrival surfeited those who eat of them. But not attending sufficiently to this caution, and too hastily taking the word surfeit in its literal and common acceptation, we imagined that those who tasted the fish w^en Lord Anson first came hither, were made sick merely by eating too much; whereas, if that had been the case, there would have been no reason for
totally totally abstaining afterwards, but only eating tempe- l765rately. We however bought our knowledge by expe-"''"' rience, which we might have had cheaper; for though all our people, who tasted this fish, eat sparingly, they were all soon afterwards dangerously ill.
Besides the fruit that has been mentioned already, this island produces cotton and indigo in abundance, and would certainly be of great value if it was situated in the West-Indies. The Surgeon of the Tamar enclosed a large spot of ground here, and made a very pretty garden; but we did not stay long enough to derive any advantage from it.
While we lay here, I sent the Tamar to examine the island of Saypan, which is much larger than Tinian, rises higher, and, in my opinion, has a much pleafanter appearance. She anchored to the leeward of it, at the distance of a mile from the shore, and in about ten fathom water, with much the fame kind of ground as we had in the road of Tinian. Her people landed upon a fine fandy beach, which is fix or seven miles long, and walked up into the woods, where they faw many trees which were very fit for top-masts. They faw no fowls, nor any tracks of cattle; but of hogs and guanicoes there was plenty. They found no fresh water near the beach, but faw a large pond inland, which they did not examine. They faw large heaps of pearl oyster shells thrown up together, and other signs of people having been there not long before: possibly the Spaniards may go thither at some seasons of the year, and carry on a pearl fishery. They also faw many of those square pyramidal pillars which are to be found at Tinian, and which are particularly described in the account of Lord Anson's Voyage.
On Monday, the 30th of September, having now Septemb. been here nine weeks, and our sick being pretty well on ' 39' recovered, I ordered the tents to be struck, and with the forge and oven carried back to the ship; I also laid in about two thousand cocoa-nuts, which I had experienced to be so powersul a remedy for the scurvy, and October, the next day I weighed, hoping that before we should ue ''' get the length of the Bash6 Islands, the N. E. monsoon would be set in. I stood along the shore to take in the beef-hunters i but we had very little wind this Vol. I. H ''' day
day and the next till the evening, when it came to the westward and blew fresh : I then stood to the northward till the morning of the 3d, when we made Anatacaii, an island that is remarkable high, and the fame that was first fallen in with by Lord Anfon.
The Run from Tinian to Pulo Timoan, with some Account of that Island, its Inhabitants and Productions, and thence to Batavia.
WE continued our course till Thursday the 10th, when being in latitude 18° 33' N. longitude 1360 50' E. we found the ship two and twenty miles to the southward of her account, which must have been the effect of a strong current in that direction. The variation here was 50 10' E. and for some time we found it regularly decreasing, so that on the 19th, being in latitude 210 io' N. longitude 124° 17'E. the needle pointed due north.
On the 18 th, we had found the ship eighteen miles to the northward of her account, and saw several land birds about the ship, which appeared to be very much tired: we caught one as it was resting upon the booms, and found it very remarkable. It was about as big as a goose, and all over as white as snow, except the legs and beak, which were black; the beak was curved, and of so great a length and thickness, that it is not easy to conceive how the muscles of the neck, which was about a foot long, and as small as that of a crane, could support it. We kept it about four months on biscuit and water, but it then died, apparently for want of nourishment, being almost as light as a bladder. It was very different from every species of the Toucan that is represented by Edwards, and I believe has never been described. These birds appeared to have been blown off some island to the northward of us, that is not laid down in the charts.
The needle continued to point due north till the 22d, when at six o'clock in the morning, Graston's Island, the northermost os the Bashe Islands, bore south, distant six leagues. As I had designed to touch at