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Explanatory Observations on some of the preceding

Rules. 1. Whether it is the open or the close game you play, be sure bring out all your pieces into play before you commence the assault; for if you do not, and your adversary does, you will attack or be attacked always disadvantageously; this is so decided, that you had bet. ter forego a benefit than deviate from it, and no one will ever play well at this game, who does not put this rule strictly in practice, It must not be concluded that these preparatory moves are useless, because you receive not an immediate success from them; they are equally important as it is at Whist to deal thirteen cards round before play. With a view of bringing out your pieces properly, push on your pawns first, and support them with your pieces, and you will receive this advantage from it, that your game will not be choked. By this I mean, that all your pieces will be at liberty to play and assist each other, and thus co-operate towards completing your purpose ; and this may be farther observed, that, either in your attack or defence, you bring them out so as not to be driven back again.

2. When you have brought out your pieces, which you will have done very well, if you have your choice on which side to castle, (which I would always recommend to do) you should then stop and consider thoroughly your own and your adversary's game, and from his situation, and noticing where he is weakest, you should not only make your decision where to castle, but also where to begin your attack; and it is certainly clear you cannot do it in a better place than where you are strongest, and your adversary weakest. By this mode, it is very probable that you will be able to break through your adversary's game, in which contest some pieces must of course be exchanged. But now rest awhile, and survey both games attentively, and do not let your impetuosity hürry you away with this first success; and my advice to you in this critical juncture (especially if you still find your enemy pretty strong) is to rally your men again, and put them in good order for a second or third attack, if requisite, still keeping your men close and well connected together, so as to be of use to each other : for want of this method, and a little coolness, I have often known an almost sure victory snatched out of a player's hands, and a total overthrow the consequence. But if, after all, you cannot penetrate so far as to win the game, nevertheless, by observing these rules, you may still be sure of having a well-disposed game.

3. And now that I am arrived at the last period of the game, which abounds also with difficulties and niceties, it must be remarked, where your pawns are strongest, most united together, and nearest to queen, you must likewise bear in mind how your adversary's pawns are disposed, and their degree of preferment, and compare these things together; and if you find you can get to queen before him, you must proceed without hesitation; if not, you must hasten on with your king to prevent him. I speak now, as supposing the noblemen to be gone: if not, they are to attend your pawns, and likewise to hinder your adversary from going to queen.

Some other General Rules. 1. Do not be over cautious about losing a rook for an inferior piece : although a rook is better than any other, except the queen, yet it does not often come into play, so as to operate, until the end of the game; and therefore it often turns out that it is better to have a less good piece in play than a better out.

2. When you have moved a piece, so that your adversary drives you away with a pawn, you may be sure (generally speaking) that it is a bad move, your enemy gaining that double advantage over you of advancing himself, and making you retire : I think this merits attention ; for although between equal and good players the first move may not be much, yet the loss of one or two more, after the first, makes the game almost. irretrievable. Also, if you defend and can recover the move, or the attack, (for they both go together,) you are in a fair way of winning

3. If you make such a move as that, having liberty to play again, you can make nothing of it, take it for granted, it is an exceeding bad one ; for in this nico game every move is important.

4. If your game is such, that you have scarcely any thing to play, it is your own fault, either for having

brought out your pieces wrong, or, which is worse, not at all; for had they been brought out right, you must have sufficient variety to play.

5. Do not be too cautious of doubling a pawn; three pawns together are strong, but four,that make a square, with the help of other pieces, well managed, create an invincible strength, and in time of need may probably produce you a queen : on the other hand, two pawns, with an interval between, are no better than one; and if, carelessly, you should have three over each other in a line, your game cannot be in a worse plight: examine this on the table, and the truth will be self-evident. You are therefore to keep your pawns closely cemented and welhconnected together : and it must be great strength on your adversary's side that can overpower them.

6. When a piece is so attacked as that you cannot save it, give it up, and bestow your thoughts how to annoy your enemy elsewhere, while he is taking it: for it frequently occurs, that while your adversary is running madly after a piece, you either get a pawn or two, or such a situation as ends in his discomfiture.

7. Supposing your queen and another piece are at tacked at the same time, and by removing your queen, you must lose your piece: in this situation, if you can get two pieces in exchange for your queen, you should rather do it than retire; for it is the difference of three pieces, which is more than the value of a queen; besides that, you keep your game entire, and preserve your situation, which very often is better than a piece; nay, rather than retire, I would give my queen for a piece, and a pawn or two, nay, almost for what I can get; for observe this one thing, among good players, (to convince you this advice is not bad,) that when the attack and defence is well formed, and every thing prepared for the storm, if he that plays first is obliged by the act of the person that defends to retire, it generally ends in the loss of the game of the attacked side.

8. Do not aim at changing without sufficient reason ; it is so far from being right, that a good player will take this advantage of it, that he will spoil your situation, and of course mend his own; but it is quite right in these following cases; when you are strongest, espe. cially by a piece, then every time you change your

advantage is increasing ; this is so plain, it requires no argument. Again, when you have played a piece, and your adversary opposes one to you, change directly, for it is clear he wants to remove you; prevent him, therefore, and do not lose the move.

9. Cast up your game every now and then, make a balance, and then take your measures accordingly.

10. At the conclusion of the game especially, remember your king is a capital piece, and do not let him be idle ; it is by his means, generally, you get the move and the victory.

bishop, operate at a distance, it may not always be necessary in your attack to have them near your ad. versary's king; they do better at a distance, cannot be driven away, and prevent a stale-mate.

12. When a piece presents that you can take, and that cannot escape you, avoid being in too great a hurry; see that there is not a better move elsewhere, and take it at your leisure.

13. To take your adversary's pawn with your king is not always right, for it very often turns out to be a safeguard and protection to your king.

14. If you can take a man with different pieces, do it not hastily with the first that occurs, but consider thoroughly with which you had best take it.



Beginning with white. Illustrated by observations on

the most material moves; and two back games; one commencing at the 12th, and the second at the 37th

move. - 1. White. The king's pawn two steps.

Black. The same. 2. W The king's bishop at his queen's bishop's 4th

square. B The same. 3. W The queen's bishop's pawn one move

B The king's knight at his bishop's 3d square

4. W The queen's pawn two moves. a .

B The pawn takes it. 5. W The pawn retakes the pawn. b B The king's bishop at his queen's knight's third

square. C 6. The queen's knight at his bishop's 3d square.

B The king castles. 7. W_The king's knight at his king's 2d square. d

B The queen's bishop's pawn one move. 8. W The king's bishop at his queen's 3d square. e

a This pawn is played two moves for important rea. sons: 1st, to hinder the adversary's king's bishop from playing upon your king's bishop's pawn; 2d, to place the strength of your pawns in the middle of the board ; of great consequence to achieve the making of a queen.

6 When the game is in this situation, viz. one of your pawns at your king's, and another at your queen's 4th square, do not push either of them before your adversary proposes to change one for the other: in such case advance the attacked pawn. Pawns, when sustained in a front line, obstruct very much the adversary's pieces from entering in our game, or taking a desirable post.

c If he gives check with his bishop instead of withdrawing it, you are to cover the check with your bishop, in order to retake his bishop with your knight, in case he takes yours; your knight will then defend your king's pawn, otherwise defenceless. But perhaps he may not choose to take your bishop, because a good player endeavours to retain his king's bishop as long as possible.

d You should not play your knights at your bishop's * 3d square before the bishop's pawn has moved two steps, because the motion of the pawn is hindered by the knight.

e Your bishop retires to avoid being attacked by the black queen's pawn, which would force you to take that pawn with yours; and thus decrease the strength of your game, spoiling entirely the project already mentioned, in the 1st and 2d observations.

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