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which may be better learnt from the games hereafter stated, than from description.
The bishops move angularly, forward or backward. on the colour on which they are originally placed.
The rooks move in straight lines, forward, backward, or sidewise.
The queen has the moves of the bishop and of the rook.
The king moves in every direction, but one square only at a time, except in casiling. He may castle once in the game, which is done by placing the rook with which he castles, on the square next to the king, and then placing the king on the square next the other side of the rook.
The queen, moks, and bishops, move the whole ex. tent of the board, unless impeded by some other piece or pawn.
The player is not compelled, as at draughts, to take any piece offered him, but may refuse if he thinks proper. When any piece is captured, it is removed from the board, and the capturing piece placed in the same square.
When the king is exposed to the attack of any of the adversary's pieces or pawns, he is said to be in check, • and if he is unable to avoid the attack, by taking the
attacking piece, interposing one of his own, or retiring out of check, he is check-mated, and his adversary wins the game
When the pieces and pawns on each side are so much reduced, or so sitnated, that neither party can check-mate the other's king, the game is drawn.
When a player has no piece or pawn which he can move, except his king, and his king not being in check, is yet so situated that he cannot move without going into check, he is stale-mated. Phillidore, Hoyle, and many others, say that he who is stale-mate wins the game; but Sarratt, in his work, published in London, 1808, states, that “in Italy, France, Germany, &c., and by all Italian players of eminence, stale-mate is considered a drawn game;" and gives this as an established law.
Laws of the Game 1. If the board, or pieces, be improperly placed, the mistake cannot be rectified after four moves on each side are played.
2. When a player has touched a piece, he must move it, unless it is only to replace it; when he must bay, “ J'adoube,” or I replace.
3. When a player has quitted a piece, he cannot recall the move.
4. If a player touch one of his adversary's pieces, without saying J'adoube, he may be compelled to take it, or if it cannot be taken to move his king.
5. When a pawn is moved two steps, it may be taken by any adversary's pawn which it passes, and the cap-. turing pawn must be placed in that square over which. the other leaps.
6. The king cannot castle if he has before moved, if he is in check, if in castling he passes a check, or if the rook has moved.
7. Whenever a player checks his adversary's king, he must say Check, otherwise the adversary need not notice the check. If the player should, on the next move, attack the queen or any other piece, and then say check, his adversary may replace his last move, and defend his king.
8. When a pawn reaches the first row of the adversary's side, it may be made a queen, or any other piece the player chooses.
9. If a false move is made, and is not discovered until the next move is completed, it cannot be recalled.
10. The king cannot be moved into check, nor within one square of the adverse king, nor can any player move a piece or pawn that leaves his king in check. Mr. Hoyle's General Rules for the Game of Chess.
1. Before you stir your pieces, you ought to move your pawns, and afterward bring out your pieces to support them. Therefore, in order to open your game well, the king's, the queen's, and the bishop's pawns should be first played.
2. You are not, therefore, to play out any of your pieces in the early part of your game, because you thereby lose moves, in case your adversary should have it in his power by playing a pawn upon them, to make them retire, which also opens his game at the same time ; more particularly avoid playing your queen out, until your game is tolerably well opened.
3. Never give check unless some advantage is there. by gained, because you lose the move if he is able either to take or drive your piece away.
4. Do not crowd your game by having too many pieces together, choking up your passage, so as to impede your advancing or retreating your men as occasion may render necessary.
5. If your game is crowded, endeavour to free it by making exchanges of pieces or pawns, and castle your king as soon as possible.
6. Endeavour, on the other hand, to crowd your adversary's game, thus : when he plays out his pieces before he does his pawns, attack them as soon as you can with your pawns, by which you may make him lose moves, and thus crowd him.
7. If the adversary attacks your king, and it should not he in your power to attack his, offer exchanges with him: and if he retires when you present a piece to exchange, he may lose a move, and thus you gain an advantage.
8. Play your men in so good guard of one another, that if any man you advance be taken, the adverse piece may be taken also by that which protected yours, and with this view, be sure to have as many guards to your piece as you perceive your adversary advances pieces upon it; and if you can, let them be of less consideration than those he attacks with. If you find that you cannot well support your piece, see if by assailing one of his that is better, or as good, you cannot thereby save yours.
9. Avoid making an attack unless well prepared for it, for you open thereby your adversary's game, and make him ready prepared to pour in a strong attack upon you when your weak one is over. ,
10. Never play any man till you have examined whether you are free from danger by your enemy's last move: nor offer to commence an attack till you have considered what injury he would be able to do you by his next moves, in consequence of yours, that you may frustrate his designs, if hurtful, before it is too late.
11. When your attack is prosperous, never be diverted from following up your scheme (if possible) on to giving him mate, by taking any piece, or other advantage, your adversary may purposely throw in your way, with this intention, that by your taking that bait he might gain a move that would make your design prove abortive.
12. When you are pursuing a well-conceived attack, but judge it necessary to force vour way through your adversary's defence with the loss of a few pieces; if, upon reckoning as many moves forward as you can, you see a prospect of success, rush on boldly, and sacrifice a piece or two to achieve your object: these bold attempts make the finest games.
13. Never let your queen so stand before your king, as that your adversary, by bringing a rook or a bishop, might check your king, if she was not there, for you hardly have a chance to save her.
14.' Let not your adversary's knight (particularly if duly guarded) come to check your king and queen, or your king and rook, or your queen and rook, or your iwo rooks at the same time: for in the first two cases, the king being compelled to go out of check, the queen or the rook must be lost: and in the last two cases, a rook must be lost, at best, for a worst piece.
15. . Be careful that no guarded pawn of your adversary's fork two of your pieces.
16. When the kings have castled on different sides of the board, the enemy must advance upon the other king the pawns he has on that side of the board, taking care to bring up his pieces, especially his queen and rooks, to support them; and the king that has castled is not to stir his three pawns till compelled to it.
17. Endeavour to have a move as it were in ambuscade, in playing the game: that is, place the queen, bishop, or rook, behind a pawn, or a piece, in such a way, as that upon playing that pawn, or piece, you discover a check upon your adversary's king, and thus get a piece, or some other advantage by it.
18. Never protect an inferior piece with a better, if you can do it with a pawn, because that better piece may in such a case be, as it were, out of play; on the same account, you ought not to guard a pawn with a piece, if you have it in your power to guard it with apawn.
19. A pawn passed, and well supported, frequently costs the adversary a piece. And if you play to win the game only, whenever you have gained a pawn, or
any other advantage, and are not in danger of losing the move thereby, make as frequent exchanges of pieces as possible.
20. If yon have three pawns each upon the board, and no piece, and you have one of your pawns on one side of the board, and the other two on the opposite, and your adversary's three pawns also are opposite to your two, march with your king as soon as possible, in take his pawns; and if he tries with his king to protect them, go on to queen with your single pawn : and if he goes to prevent it, take his pawns, and push the others to queen.
21. Toward the end of a game, each party having only three or four pawns on opposite sides of the board, the kings should endeavour to gain the move, in order to win the game. For instance, if you bring your king opposed to your adversary's king, with only one square between you, you will have gained the move. .
22. When your adversary has his king and one pawk on the board, and you have your king only, you can not lose that game, if you can bring your king to be opposite to your adversary's when he is directly either before or on one side of his pawn, and there is only óne sqnare between the kings.
23. When your ad versary has a bishop and one pawn on the rook's line, and bishop is not of the colour that commands the square his pawn is going to, and you have only king, if you can get into that corner, that game cannot be lost, but may be won by a stale.
24. When the game is to your disadvantage, having only your queen left in play, and your king is in the position of stale-mate, keep giving check to your ad. versary's king, taking especial care not to check him where he can interpose any of his pieces that make the stale ; you will at last force him, by so doing, to take your queen, and then you conquer by being in a stale-mate. (See p. 208.)
25. Never cover a check with a piece that a pawn pushed upon it may take, for fear of only getting that pawn for it.
26. Always be careful that your adversary's king has a move: therefore do not crowd him up with your pieces, for fear you inadvertently give stale-mate.