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longer, but went straight and lift her up, crying there were certain orators appointed, that out, 'Oh, mother, what have you done to me?' stirred up the common people against him : And, holding her hard by the right hand, 'Oh, and when they had told their tales, Martius mother,' said he, ‘you have won a happy victory rose up to make them answer. Now, notwithfor your country, but mortal and unhappy for standing the mutinous people made a marvelyour son; for I see myself vanquished by you lous great noise, yet, when they saw him, for alone.' These words being spoken openly, he the reverence they bare unto his valiantness, spake a little apart with his mother and wife, they quieted themselves, and gave him audience and then let them return again to Rome, for so to allege with leisure what he could for his they did request him; and so, remaining in purgation. Moreover, the honestest men of camp that night, the next morning he dis- the Antiates, and who most rejoiced in peace, lodged, and marched homeward into the Volces' showed by their countenance that they would country again."

hear him willingly, and judge also according

to their conscience. Whereupon Tullus, fear15 SCENE V.

ing that if he did let him speak he would Hail, lords ! I am return'd your soldier.

prove his innocency to the people, because, “Now, when Martius was returned again into amongst other things, he had an eloquent the city of Antium from his voyage, Tullus, tongue; besides that, the first good service that hated and could no longer abide him for he had done to the people of the Volces, did the fear he had of his authority, sought divers win him more favour than these last accumeans to make him away, thinking that, if he sations could purchase him displeasure ; and let slip that present time, he should never re- furthermore, the offence they laid to his charge cover the like and fit occasion again. Where was a testimony of the good will they ought fore Tullus, having procured many other of his him; for they would never have thought he confederacy, required Martius might be deposed had done them wrong for that he took not the from his estate, to render up account to the city of Rome, if they had not been very near Volces of his charge and government. Martius, taking of it by means of his approach and fearing to become a private man again, under conduction ;-for these causes, Tullus thought Tullus, being general (whose authority was he might no longer delay his pretence and greater, otherwise, than any other among all enterprise, neither to tarry for the mutining the Volces), answered-he was willing to give and rising of the common people against him: up his charge, and would resign it into the wherefore those that were of the conspiracy hands of the lords of the Volces if they did began to cry out that he was not to be heard, all command him, as by all their command and that they would not suffer a traitor to usurp ment he received it; and, moreover, that he tyrannical power over the tribe of the Volces, would not refuse even at that present to give who would not yield up his state and authority. up an account unto the people, if they would And in saying these words they all fell upon tarry the hearing of it. The people hereupon him, and killed him in the market-place, none called a common council, in which assembly of the people once offering to rescue him.”

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INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

*THE Tragedy of Julius Cæsar' was first drawn by Shakspere, appear to us to be printed in the folio collection of 1623. The these: Brutus acts wholly upon principle; text is divided into acts; and the stage Cassius partly upon impulse. Brutus acts directions are full and precise. Taken al- only when he has reconciled the contemplatogether, we know no play of Shakspere's tion of action with his speculative opinions ; that presents so few difficulties arising out Cassius allows the necessity of some action of inaccuracies in the original edition. to run before and govern his opinions. Bru

Years, perhaps centuries, have rolled on tus is a philosopher; Cassius is a partisan. since the æra of Coriolanus.' Rome had Brutus therefore deliberates and spares ; seen a constitution which had reconciled the Cassius precipitates and denounces. Brutus differences of the patricians and the ple- is the nobler instructor; Cassius the better beians. The two orders had built a temple politician. Shakspere, in the first great to Concord. Her power had increased ; her scere between them, brings out these disterritory had extended. In compounding tinetions of character upon which future their differences the patricians and the events so mainly depend. plebeians had appropriated to themselves Nothing can be more interesting than to all the wealth and honours of the state. follow Shakspere with Plutarch in hand. There was a neglected class that the social The poet adheres to the facts of history with system appeared to reject, as well as to a remarkable fidelity. A few hard figures despise. The aristocratic party was again are painted upon a canvas; the outlines are brought into a more terrible conflict with distinct, the colours are strong; but there is the impoverished and the destitute. Civil no art in the composition, no grouping, no war was the natural result. Sulla established light and shadow. This is the historian's a short-lived constitution. The dissolution picture. We turn to the poet. We recogof the Republic was at hand: the struggle nise the same figures, but they appear to was henceforth to be not between classes, live; they are in harmony with the entire but individuals. The death of Julius Cæsar scene in which they move : we have at once was soon followed by the final termination the reality of nature, and the ideal of art, of the contest between the republican and which is a higher nature. Yet the art of the monarchical principle. Shakspere saw the poet is so subtle that many have fancied the grandeur of the crisis : and he seized that they could detect a want of art; and upon it for one of his lofty expositions of the character of Cæsar, as drawn by Shakpolitical philosophy. He has treated it spere, has been held not only to be tame, as no other poet would have treated it, and below the historical conception of the because he saw the exact relations of the great dictator, but as representing him in a contending principle to the future great false light. We believe that Shakspere was history of mankind. The death of Cæsar wholly right. At the exact period of the was not his catastrophe : it was the death of action of this drama, Cæsar, possessing the the Roman Republic at Philippi.

reality of power, was haunted by the weak. Of all Shakspere's characters none require ness of passionately desiring the title of to be studied with more patient attention king. Plutarch says—“The chiefest cause than those of Brutus and Cassius, that we that made him mortally hated was the may understand the resemblances and the covetous desire he had to be called king." differences of each. The leading distinc- This is the pivot upon which the whole tions between these two remarkable men, as action of Shakspere's tragedy turns. There

might have been another mode of treating truth had he said—the character is deterthe subject. The death of Julius Cæsar mined by the plot. While Cæsar is upon might have been the catastrophe. The re- the scene, it was for the poet, largely interpublican and the monarchical principles preting the historian, to show the inward might have been exhibited in conflict. The workings of "the covetous desire he had to republican principle would have triumphed be called king .;" and most admirably, acin the fall of Cæsar; and the poet would cording to our notions of characterisation, have previously held the balance between has he shown them. Altogether we profess the two principles, or have claimed, indeed, to receive Shakspere's characterisation of our largest sympathies for the principles Cæsar with a perfect confidence that he of Cæsar and his friends, by a true exhi- produced that character upon fixed prinbition of Cæsar's greatness and Cæsar's ciples of art. It is not the prominent chavirtues. The poet chose another course. racter of the play; and it was not meant to And are we then to talk, with ready flip be so. It is true to the narrative upon pancy, of ignorance and carelessness—that which Shakspere founded it; but, what is of he wanted classical knowledge—that he gave more importance, it is true to every natural himself no trouble? “The fault of the conception of what Cæsar must have been character is the fault of the plot,” says at the exact moment of his fall. Hazlitt. It would have been nearer the

PERSONS REPRESENTED.

JULIUS CÆSAR. Appears, Act I. sc. 2. Act II. sc. 2. Act III. sc. 1. Octavius CÆSAR, a triumvir after the death

of Julius Cæsar. Appears, Act IV. sc. 1. Act V. sc. 1; sc. 5. MARCUS ANTONIUS, a triumvir after the death

of Julius Cæsar. Appeara, Act I. sc. 2. Act II. sc. 2. Act III. sc. I ; sc. 2.

Act IV. sc. 1. Act V. sc. I; sc. 4; sc. 5. M. ÆMILIUS LEPIDUS, a triumvir after the

death of Julius Cæsar.
Appears, Act III. sc. 1. Act IV. sc. 1.

CICERO, a senator.
Appears, Act I. sc. 2; sc. 3.

PUBLIUS, a senator.
Appears, Act II. sc. 2. Act III. sc. 1.
POPILIUS LENA, a senator.

Appears, Act III. sc. 1.
MARCUS BRUTUS, a conspirator against

Julius Cæsar.
Appears, Act I. sc. 2, Act II. sc. 1; sc. 2.
Act III. sc. 1; sc. 2. Act IV. sc. 2; sc. 3.

Act V. sc. 1; sc. 2; sc. 3; sc. 4; sc. 5. Cassius, a conspirator against Julius Cæsar.

Appears, Act I. sc. 2; sc. 3. Act II. sc. 1.
Act III. sc. l; sc. 2. Act IV. sc. 2; sc. 3.

Act V. sc. 1; sc. 3.
Casca, a conspirator against Julius Cæsar.
Appears, Act I. sc. 2; sc. 3. Act II. sc. l; sc. 2.

Act III. sc. l.
TREBONIUS, a conspirator against Julius

Cæsar.
Appears, Act II. sc. 1; sc. 2. Act III. sc. 1.
LIGARIUS, a conspirator against Julius

Cæsar.

Appears, Act II. sc. l; sc. 2. DECIUS BRUTUS, a conspirator against Julius

Cæsar. Appears, Act I. sc. 2. Act II. sc. 1; sc. 2. Act III. sc. I. METELLUS CIMBER, a conspirator against

Julius Cæsar. Appears, Act II. sc. l; sc. 2. Act III. sc. 1. Cinna, a conspirator against Julius Cæsar. Appears, Act 1. sc. 3. Act II. sc. 1; sc. 2. Act III. sc. 1.

FLAVIUS, a tribune.

Appears, Act I. sc. I.
Marullus, a tribune.

Appears, Act I. sc. 1.
ARTEMIDORUS, a sophist of Cnidos.
Appears, Act II. sc. 3. Act III. sc. 1.

A Soothsayer.
Appears, Act I. sc. 2. Act II. sc. 4. Act III. sc. 1.

CINNA, a poet.
Appears, Act III. sc. 3.

A Poet.

Appears, Act IV. sc. 3. LUCILIUS, a friend to Brutus and Cassius.

Appears, Act IV. sc. 2; sc. 3.

Act V. sc. 1; sc. 3; sc. 4; sc. 5. TITINIUS, a friend to Brutus and Cassius.

Appears, Act IV. sc. 2; sc. 3. Act V. sc. l; sc. 3. MESSALA, a friend to Brutus and Cassius.

Appears, Act IV. sc. 3.

Act V. sc. 1 ; sc. 2; sc. 3; sc. 5. Young Cato, a friend to Brutus and Cassius.

Appears, Act V. sc. 3; sc. 4. VOLUMNIUS, a friend to Brutus and Cassius.

Appears, Act V. sc. 3; sc. 5.
VARRO, servant to Brutus.

Appears, Act IV. sc. 3.
CLITUS, servant to Brutus.

Appears, Act V. sc. 5.
CLAUDIUS, servant to Brutus.

Appears, Act IV. sc. 3.
STRATO, servant to Brutus.

Appears, Act V. sc. 3; sc. 5.

Lucius, servant to Brutus.
Appears, Act II. sc. I; sc. 4. Act IV. sc. 2; sc. 3.
DARDANIUS, servant to Brutus.

Appears, Act V. sc. 5.
PINDARUS, servant to Cassius.
Appears, Act IV. sc. 2. Act V. sc. 3.

CALPHURNIA, wife to Cæsar.
Appears, Act I. sc. 2. Act II. sc. 2.

Portia, wife to Brutus.
Appears, Act I. sc. 2. Act II. sc. l; sc. 4.
Senators, Citizens, Guards, Attendants, dc.

SCENE,--DURING A GREAT PART OF THE PLAY AT ROME; AFTERWARDS AT SARDIS;

AND NEAR PHILIPPI.

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