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seldom do go together. I examined them, particularly Comte Lascaris, concerning you: their report is a very favourable one, especially on the side of Knowledge: the quickness of conception, which they allow you, I can easily credit; but the attention,

which they add to it, pleases me the more, as, I own, · I expected it less. Go on in the pursuit and the

increase of Knowledge; nay I am sure you will, for you now know too much to stop; and, if Mr. Harte would let you be idle, I am convinced that you would not. But now that you have left Leipsig, and are entered into the great world, remember there is another object that must keep pace with, and accompany Knowledge; I mean, Manners, Po liteness, and the Graces; in which Sir Charles Williams, though very much your friend, owns you are very deficient. The manners of Leipsig must be shook off; and in that respect you must put on the

No scrambling at your meals, as at a German ordinary; no awkward overturns of glasses, plates, and saltcellars; no horseplay. On the contrary, a gentleness of manners, a graceful carriage, and an insinuating address, must take their place. I repeat, and shall never cease repeating to you, the Graces, the Graces.

I desire that, as soon as ever you get to Turin, you will apply yourself diligently to the Italian language; that before you leave that place, you may know it well enough to be able to speak tolerably, when you get to Rome; where you will soon make yourself perfectly master of Italian, from the daily necessity you will be under of speaking it. In the meantime, I insist upon your not neglecting, much less forgetting, the German you already know; which you may not only continue but improve, by speaking it constantly to your Saxon boy, and, as often as you can, to the several Germans you will meet in your travels. You remember, no doubt,

new man.

that you must never write to me from Turin, but in the German language and character.

I send you the enclosed letter of recommendation to Mr. Smith, the King's Consul at Venice; who* can, and I dare say will be more useful to you there than

any body. Pray make your court, and behave your best, to Monsieur and Madame Capello; who will be of great use to you at Rome. Adieu! Yours, tenderly.



London, April the 19th, O. S. 1749. This letter will, I believe, still find you at Venice, in all the dissipation of Masquerades, Ridottos, Operas, &c.: with all my heart; they are decent evening amusements, and very properly succeed that serious application to which I am sure you devote your mornings. There are liberal and illiberal pleasures, as well as liberal and illiberal arts. There are some pleasures, that degrade a gentleman, as much as some trades could do.

Sottish drinking, indiscriminate gluttony, driving coaches, rustic sports, such as fox-chases, horse-races, &c. are, in my opinion, infinitely below the honest and industrious professions of a tailor, and a shoemaker, which are said to déroger.

As you are now in a musical country, where singing, fiddling, and piping, are not only the common topics of conversation, but almost the principal objects of attention; I cannot help cautioning you against giving into those (I will call them illiberal) pleasures (though music is commonly reckoned one of the liberal arts) to the degree that most of your countrymen do, when they travel in Italy. If love music, hear it; go to operas, concerts, and pay

fiddlers to play to you; but I insist upon your neither piping nor fiddling yourself. It puts a gentle man in a very frivolous, contemptible light; brings him into a great deal of bad company; and takes up a great deal of time, which might be much better employed. Few things would mortify me more, than to see you bearing a part in a concert, with a fiddle under your chin, or a pipe in your mouth.

I have had a great deal of conversation with Comte du Perron, and Comte Lascaris, upon your subject; and I will tell you, very truly, what Comte du Perron (who is, in my opinion, a very pretty man) said of

you. Il a de l'esprit, un savoir peu commun à son âge, une grandevivacité, et quand il aura pris des manières, il sera parfait ; car il faut avouer qu'il sent. encore le collége; mais cela viendra. I was very glad to hear, from one whom I think so good a judge, that

you wanted nothing but des manières; which I am convinced you will now soon acquire, in the company which henceforwards you are likely to keep. But I must add too, that, if you should not acquire them, all the rest will be of very little use to you. By manières, I do not mean bare common civility; every body must have that, who would not be kicked out of company: but I mean engaging, insinuating, shining Manners; a distinguished politeness, an almost irresistible address; a superior gracefulness in all you say and do. It is this alone that can give all your other talents their full lustre and value; and, consequently, it is this which should now be the principal object of your attention. Ob serve minutely, wherever you go, the allowed and established models of good breeding, and form yourself upon them. Whatever pleases you most, in others, will infallibly please others, in you. I have often repeated this to you; now is your time of putting it in practice.

Pray make my compliments to Mr. Harte; and

tell him I have received his letter from Vienna, of the 16th N. S. but that I shall not trouble him with an answer to it, till I have received the other letter, which he promises me, upon the subject of one of my last. I long to hear from him, after your settlement at Turin: the months that you are to pass there will be very decisive ones for you. The exercises of the Academy, and the manners of Courts, must be attended to and acquired, and at the same time, your other studies continued. I am sure you will not pass, nor desire, one single idle hour there; for I do not foresee that you can, in any part of your life, put out six months to greater interest, than those next six at Turin.

We will talk hereafter about your stay at Rome, and in other parts of Italy. This only I will now recommend to you; which is, to extract the spirit of every place you go to. In those places, which are only distinguished by classical fame, and valuable remains of antiquity, have your Classics in your hand and in your head: : compare

the ancient geography, and descriptions, with the modern; and never fail to take notes. Rome will furnish you with business enough of that sort; but then it furnishes you with many other objects, well deserving your attention; such as deep ecclesiastical craft and policy. Adieu.



London, April the 27th, 0. S. 1749. I have received your letter from Vienna, of the 19th, N. S. which gives me great uneasiness, upon Mr. Harte's account. You and I have reason to interest ourselves very particularly in every thing that relates to him. I am glad, however, that no bone is broken

or dislocated; which being the case, I hope he will have been able to pursue his journey to Venice: in that supposition I direct this letter to you at Turin; where it will either find, or at least not wait very long for you; as I calculate that you will be there by the end of next month, N. S. I hope you reflect how much you have to do there, and that you are determined to employ every moment of your time accordingly. You have your classical and severer studies to continue with Mr. Harte; you have your exercises to learn; the turn and manners of a Court to acquire: reserving always some time for the decent amusements and pleasures of a gentleman. You see that I am never against pleasures; I loved them myself, when I was of your age; and it is as reasonable that you should love them now. But I insist upon it, that pleasures are very combinable with both business and studies, and have a much better relish from the mixture. The man who cannot join business and pleasure is either a formal coxcomb in the one, or a sensual beast in the other. Your evenings I therefore allot for company, assemblies, balls, and such sort of amusements; as I look upon those to be the best schools for the manners of a gentleman; which nothing can give but use, observation, and experience. You have, besides, Italian to learn, to which I desire you will diligently apply; for though French is, I believe, the language of the Court at Turin, yet Italian will be very necessary for you at Rome, and in other parts of Italy; and if you are well grounded in it while you are at Turin (as you easily may, for it is a very easy language), your subsequent stay at Rome will make you perfect in it. I would also have you acquire a general notion of Fortification; I mean so far as not to be ignorant of the terms, which you will often hear mentioned in company; such as Ravelin, Bastion, Glacis, Contrescarpe, &c. In order to this, I do not

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