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Sir, you

So strangely in one piece. 2 Gent.

But, 'pray, what follow'd ?5 3 Gent. At length her grace rose, and with modest

paces Came to the altar; where she kneel’d, and, saint like, Cast her fair eyes to heaven, and pray'd devoutly. Then rose again, and bow'd her to the people: When by the archbishop of Canterbury She had all the royal makings of a queen; As holy oil, Edward Confessor's crown, The rod, and bird of peace, and all such emblems Laid nobly on her: which perform'd, the choir, With all the choicest musick of the kingdom, Together sung Te Deum. So she parted, And with the same full state pac'd back again To fork-place, where the feast is held.

1 Gent. Must no more call it York-place, that is past: For, since the cardinal fell, that title 's lost; 'Tis now the king's, and call d-Whitehall. 3 Gent.

I know it, But 'tis so lately alter'd, that the old name Is fresh about me. 2 Gent.

What two reverend bishops Were those that went on each side of the queen? 3 Gent. Stokesly and Gardiner; the one, of Winches

(Newly preferr'd from the king's secretary)
The other, London.
2 Gent.

He of Winchester
Is held no great lover of the archbishop's,
The virtuous Cranmer.
3 Gent.

All the land knows that: However, yet there's no great breach; when it comes, Cranmer will find a friend will not shrink from him.

2 Gent. Who may that be, I pray you? 3 Gent.

Thomas Cromwell; A man in much esteem with the king, and truly A worthy friend.—The king Has made him master o’the jewel-house,

5 But, 'pray, what follow'd?] The word 'pray was added, for he sake of the measure, by Sir Thomas Hanmer. Steevens.

And one, already, of the privy-council.

2 Gent. He will deserve more.
3 Gent.

Yes, without all doubt.
Come, gentlemen, ye shall go my way, which
Is to the court, and there ye shall be my guests;
Something I can command. As I walk thither,
I'll tell ye more.

You may command us, sir. [Exeunt.



Enter KATHARINE, Dowager, sick; led between

Grif. How does your grace?

0, Griffith, sick to death;
My legs, like loaden branches, bow to the earth,
Willing to leave their burden: Reach a chair;-
So,—now, methinks, I feel a little ease.
Didst thou not tell me, Griffith, as thou led'st me,
That the great child of honour, cardinal Wolsey,
Was dead?

Grif Yes, madam; but, I think, 8 your grace, Out of the pain you suffer'd, gave no ear to't.

Kath. Pr’ythee, good Griffith, tell me how he died: If well, he stepp'd before me, happily, For my example.



6 Scene II.] This scene is above any other part of Shakspeare's tragedies, and perhaps above any scene of any other poet, tender and pathetick, without gods, or furies, or poisons, or precipices, without the help of romantick circumstances, without improbable sallies of poetical lamentation, and without any throes of tumultuous misery. Fohnson.

child of honour,] So, in King Henry IV, Part I:
“ That this same child of honour and renown _,” Steevens.

I think,] Old copy-I thank. Corrected in the second folio. Malone.

he stepp'd before me, happily, For my example.] Happily seems to mean on this occasioni peradventure, haply. I have been more than once of ion, when I have met with the same word thus st sages. Steevens.

Mr. M. Mason is of opinion that happily hnı




Well, the voice goes, madam: For after the stout earl Northumberland? Arrested him at York, and brought him forward (As a man sorely tainted) to his answer, He fell sick suddenly, and grew so ill, He could not sit his mule.? Kath.

Alas, poor man! Grif. At last, with easy roads,3 he came to Leicesters Lodg’d in the abbey; where the reverend abbot, With all his convent, honourably receiv'd him; To whom he gave these words,- father abbot, An old man, broken with the storms of state,



Mr. Steevens's interpretation is, I think, right. So, in King Henry VI, Part II:

Thy fortune, York, hadst thou been regent there, “Might happily have prov'd far worse than his." Malone.

the stout earl Northumberland - ] So, in Chevy Chase: The stout earl of Northumberland

“ A vow to God did make" &c. Steevens. 2 He could not sit his mule.) In Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, 1641, it is said that Wolsey poisoned himself; but the words—" at which time it was apparent that he had poisoned himself,” which appear in p. 108 of that work, were an interpolation, inserted by the pub. lisher for some sinister purpose; not being found in the two manu. scripts now preserved in the Museum. See a former note, p. 300.

Malone. Cardinals generally rode on mules. “He rode like a cardinal, sumptuously upon his mule.Cavendish's Life of Wolsey. Reed.

In the representation of the Champ de Drap d'Or, published by the Society of Antiquaries, the Cardinal appears mounted on one of these animals very richly caparisoned. This circumstance also is much dwelt on in the ancient Satire quoted p. 259, n. 2:

Wat. What yf he will the devils blisse?

Fef They regarde it no more be gisse
“Then waggynge of bis mule's tayle,
"Wat. Doth he then use on mule's to ryde!

Fef. Ye, and that with so shamful pryde

“'That to tell it is not possible.” Again:

" Then foloweth my lorde on his inule
Trapped with golde under her cule

“In every poynt most curiously.” Again:

- The bosses of his mulis brydles
“ Mvght bye Christ and his disciples

“ As farre as I coulde ever rede." Steevens.
- with easy roads,] i. e. by short stages. Steevens.

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Is come to lay his weary bones among ye ;
Give him a little earth for charity!
So went to bed: where eagerly his sickness
Pursu'd him still; and, three nights after this,
About the hour of eight, (which he himself
Foretold, should be his last,) full of repentance,
Continual meditations, tears, and sorrows,
He gave his honours to the world again,
His blessed part to heaven, and slept in peace.

Kath. So may he rest; his faults lie gently on him!
Yet thus far, Griffith, give me leave to speak him,
- And yet with charity, He was a man
Of an unbounded stomach,4 ever ranking
Himself with princes; one, that by suggestion
Ty'd all the kingdom:5 simony was fair play;

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4 of an unbounded stomach,] i. e. of unbounded pride, or haughtiness. So, Holinslied, speaking of King Richard III:

“Such a great audacitie and such a stomach reigned in his bodie." Steevens.

one, that by suggestion Ty'd all the kingdom:] The word suggestion, says the critick, [Dr. Warburton) is here used with great propriety and seeming knowledge of the Latin tongue: and he proceeds to settle the sense of it from the late Roman writers and their glossers. But Shakspeare's knowledge was from Holinshed, whom he follows verbatim :

“This cardinal was of a great stomach, for he computed himself equal with princes, and by craftie suggestions got into his hands innumerable treasure: he forced little on simonie, and was not pitifull, and stood affectionate in his own opinion: in open presence he wonld lie and seie untruth, and was double both in speech and meaning; he would promise much and perform little: he was vicious of his bodie, and gave the clergie euil example." Edit. 1587, p. 922.

Perhaps, after this quotation, you may not think, that Sir Tho. mas Hanmer, who reads tyth d instead of tyd all the kingdom, deserves quite so much of Dr. Warburton's severity.--Indisputably the passage, like every other in the speech, is intended to ex. press the meaning of the parallel one in the chronicle; it cannot therefore be credited, that any man, when the original was produced, should still choose to defend a cant acceptation, and in. form us, perhaps, seriously, that in gaming language, from I know not what practice, to tve is to equal! A sense of the word, as I have vet found, unknown to our old writers; and, if known, would not surely have been used in this place by our author.

But let us turn from conjecture to Shakspeare's authorities. Hall, from whom the above description is copied by Holinshed,

His own opinion was his law: l'the presence
He would say untruths; and be ever double,

is very explicit in the demands of the cardinal: who having inso. lently told the lord mayor and aldermen, “For sothe I thinke, that halfe your substance were too little," assures them, by way of comfort, at the end of his harangue, that, upon on average, the tythe should be sufficient: “ Sirs, speake not to breake that thyng that is concluded, for some shall not paie the tenth parte, and some more.” And again: “ Thei saied, the cardinall by visitacions, makyng of abbottes, probates of testamentes, graunting of faculties, licences, and other pollyngs in his courtes legantines, had made his threasure egall with the kynges.” Edit. 1548, p. 138, and 143. Farmer.

In Storer's Life and Death of Thomas Wolsey, a poem, 1599, the Cardinal says:

“I car'd not for the gentrie, for I had

Tithe-gentlemen, yong nobles of the land,” &c. Steevens. Ty'd all the kingdom:] i. e. he was a man of an unbounded stomach, or pride, ranking himself with princes, and by suggestion to the King and the Pope, he tyd, i. e. limited, circumscribed, and set bounds to the liberties and properties of all persons in the kingdom. That he did so, appears from various passages in the play. Act II, sc. ii, “free us from his slavery,” -“ or this imperious man will work us all from princes into pages: all men's honours,” &c. Act III, sc. ii. “You wrought to be a legate, by which power you maim'd the jurisdiction of all bishops.” See also Act I, sc. i, and Act III, sc. ii. This construction of the passage may be supported from D’Ewes's Journal of Queen Elizabeil's Parliaments, p. 644: “ Far be it from me that the state and prerogative of the prince should be tieil by me, or by the act of any other subject.”

Dr. Farmer has displayed such eminent knowledge of Shak. speare, that it is with the utmost diffidence I dissent from the al. teration which he would establish here. He would read tyth'd, and refers to the authorities of Hall and Holinshed about a tax of the tenth, or tythe of each man's substance, which is not taken notice of in the play. Let it be remarked that it is Queen Katharine speaks here, who, in Act I, sc. ii, told the King it was a demand of the sixth part of each subject's substance, that caused the rebellion. Would she afterwards say that he, i. e. Wolsey, had tythed all the kingdom, when she knew he had almost double-tythed it? Still Dr. Farmer insists that "the passage, like every other in the speech, is intended to express the meaning of the parallel One in the Chronicle:" i. e. The cardinal “ by craftie suggestion got into his hands innumerable treasure. .” This passage does not relate to a publick tax of the tenths, but to the Cardinal's own private acquisitions. If in this sense I admitted the alteration, tyth'd, I would suppose that, as the Queen is descanting on the Cardinal's own acquirements, she borrows her term from the principal emolument or payment due to priests; and means to intia

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