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To breakfast once, forth of my company.
If I be so disgracious in your sight,
Let me march on, and not offend you, madam..
Strike up the drum.

concludes his fourth chapter thus: “By this, I imagine you have walked your bellyful, and thereupon being weary, or (which is rather, I beleeve) being most gentleman-like hungry, it is fit that as I brought you unto the duke, so (because he followes the fashion of great men in keeping no house, and that therefore you must go seeke your dinner,) suffer me to take you by the hand and leade you into an ordinary." The title of this chapter is, “How a gallant should behave himself in Powles Walkes."

Hall, in the 7th Satire, B. III, seems to confirm this interpretation:

“'Tis Ruffio: Trow'st thou where he din’d to-day?
“ In sooth I saw him sit with duke Humfray:
“ Manie good welcoms, and much gratis cheere,
“ Keeps he for everie stragling cavaliere;
“ An open house haunted with greate resort,
Long service mixt with musicall disport,&c.

Hall's Satires, edit. 1602, p. 60. See likewise Foure Letters and certain Sonnets, by Gabriel Har

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vey, 1592:


“ – to seeke his dinner in Poules with duke Humphrey: to licke dishes, to be a beggar.”

Again, in The Return of the Knight of the Post, &c. by Nash, 1606: “ – in the end comming into Poules, to behold the old duke and his guests,” &c.

Again, in A wonderful, strange, and miraculous Prognostication, for this year, &c. 1591, by Nash: “ - sundry fellowes in their silkes shall be appointed to keepe duke Humfrye company in Poules, because they know not where to get their dinners abroad."

If it be objected that duke Humphrey was buried at St. Albans, let it likewise be remembered that cenotaphs were not uncom

Steevens. It appears from Stowe's Survey, 1598, that Sir Fohn Bewcampe, son to Guy, and brother to Thomas, Earls of Warwick, who dyed in 1358, had “a faire monument” on the south side of the body of St. Paul's Church. “He,” says Stowe, “is by ignorant people misnamed to be Humphrey Duke of Gloster, who lyeth honourably buried at Saint Albans, twentie miles from London: And therefore such as merily professe themselues to serue Duke Humphrey in Powles, are to bee punished here, and sent to Saint Al. bans, there to be punished againe, for theyr absence from theyr maister, as they call him.” Ritson.

Humphrey Hour,) I believe nothing more than a quibble was meant. In our poet's twentieth Sonnet we find a similar conceit; a quibble between hues (colours) and Hughes, (formerly spelt Hewes) the person addressed. Malone.



I pr’ythee, hear me speak.
K. Rich. You speak too bitterly.

Hear me a word; For I shall never speak to thee again.

K. Rich. So.

Duch. Either thou wilt die, by God's just ordinance, Ere from this war thou turn a conqueror; Or I with grief and extreme age shall perish, And never look upon thy face again. Therefore, take with thee my most heavy curse; Which, in the day of battle, tire thee more, Than all the complete armour that thou wear'st! My prayers on the adverse party fight; And there the little souls of Edward's children Whisper the spirits of thine enemies, And promise them success and victory. Bloody thou art, bloody will be thy end; Shame serves thy life, and doth thy death attend. [Exit. Q. Eliz. Though far more cause, yet much less spirit

to curse Abides in me; I say amen to her.

[Going K. Rich. Stay, madam, 3 I must speak a word with you.

Q. Eliz. I have no more sons of the royal blood, For thee to murder: for my daughters, Richard, They shall be praying nuns, not weeping queens; And therefore level not to hit their lives.

K. Rich. You have a daughter call’d-Elizabeth, Virtuous and fair, royal and gracious.

Q. Eliz. And must she die for this? O, let her live, And'I'll corrupt her manners, stain her beauty; Slander myself, as false to Edward's bed;

2 Shame serves thy life,] To serve is to accompany, servants being near the persons of their masters. Fohnson.

3 Stay, madam,] On this dialogue 'tis not necessary to bestow much criticism, part of it is ridiculous, and the whole improba. ble. Fohnson.

I cannot agree with Dr. Johnson's opinion. I see nothing ridi. culous in any part of this dialogue; and with respect to proba. bility, it was not unnatural that Richard, who by his art and wheedling tongue, had prevailed on Lady Anne to marry him in her heart's extremest grief, should hope to persuade an ambitious, and, as he thought her, a wicked woman, to consent to his marriage with her daughter, which would make her a queen, and aggrandize her family. M. Mason.

Throw over her the veil of infamy:
So she may live unscarr'd of bleeding slaughter,
I will confess she was not Edward's daughter.

K. Rich. Wrong not her birth, she is of royal blood.
Q. Eliz. To save her life, I'll say—she is not so.
K. Rich. Her life is safest only in her birth.
Q. Eliz. And only in that safety died her brothers.
K. Rich. Lo, at their birthss good stars were opposite.
Q. Eliz. No, to their lives bad friends were contrary.
K. Rich. All unavoided6 is the doom of destiny..

Q. Eliz. True, when avoided grace makes destiny:
My babes were destin'd to a fairer death,
If grace had bless'd thee with a fairer life.

K. Rich. You speak, as if that I had slain my cousins.

Q. Eliz. Cousins, indeed; and by their uncle cozen'd Of comfort, kingdom, kindred, freedom, life. Whose hands soever lanc'd their tender hearts, Thy head, all indirectly, gave direction : 7 No doubt the murderous knife was dull and blunt, Till it was whetted on thy stone-hard heart, 8 To revel in the entrails of my lambs. But that still use of grief makes wild grief tame,


she is of royal blood.] The folio reads--she is a royal princess. Steevens.

5 Lo, at their births --) Perhaps we should read-No, at their births Tyrwhitt. 6 All unavoided &c.] i. e. unavoidable. So, before :

“Whose unavoided eye is dangerous." Malone. 7 Thy head, all indirectly, gave direction :) This is a jingle in which Shakspeare perhaps found more delight than his readers. So, in Hamlet :

“ By indirections find directions out." The same opposition of words occurs also in K. John. Steevens.

8 Till it was whetted on thy stone-hard heart,] This conceit seems also to have been a great' favourite of our author. We meet with it more than once. So, in King Henry IV, P. II:

Thou hid'st a thousand daggers in thy thoughts,
“ Which thou hast whetted on thy stony heart,

“To stab,” &c.
Again, in The Merchant of Venice:

“Not on thy sole, but on thy soul, harsh Jew,
Thou mak'st thy knife keen-

still use ) i. e. constant use. So, in King Richard II:
A generation of still breeding thoughts.” Steevens.


My tongue should to thy ears not name my boys,
Till that my nails were anchor'd in thine eyes;
And I, in such a desperate bay of death,
Like a poor bark, of sails and tackling reft,
Rush all to pieces on thy rocky bosom.

K. Rich. Madam, so thrive I in my enterprize,
Aid dangerous success of bloody wars,
As I intend more good to you and yours,
Than ever you or yours by me were harm’d!

Q. Eliz. What good is cover'd with the face of heaven, To be discover'd, that can do me good ?

K.Rich. The advancement of your children, gentle lady: Q. Eliz. Up to some scaffold, there to lose their heads?

K. Rich. No, to the dignity and height of fortune, The high imperial typel of this earth’s glory.

Q. Eliz. Flatter my sorrows with report of it; Tell me, what state, what dignity, what honour, Canst thou demised to any child of mine?

K. Rich. Even all I have; ay, and myself and all, Will I withal endow a child of thine; So in the Lethe of thy angry soul Thou drown the sad remembrance of those wrongs, 3 Which, thou supposest, I have done to thee.

1 The high imperial type - ] Type is exhibition, show, display.

Fohnson. I think it means emblem, one of its usual significations.-By the imperial type of glory, Richard means a crown. M. Mason.

The canopy placed over a pulpit is still called by architects a type. It is, I apprehend, in a similar sense that the word is here used. Henley.

Bullokar, in his Expositor, 1616, defines Type-_" A figure, form, or likeness of any thing." Cawdrey in his Alphabetical Table, &c. 1604, calls it-“figure, example, or shadowe of any thing." The word is used in King Henry VI, P. III, as here :

“Thy father bears the type of king of Naples." Malone. 2 Canst thou demise - ] To demise is to grant, from demittere, to devolve a right from one to another. Steevens.

The constant language of leases is,“ demised, granted, and to farm let." But I believe the word is used by no poet but Shak. speare. For demise, the reading of the quarto, and first folio, the editor of the second folio arbitrarily substituted devise. Malone. 3 So in the Lethe of thy angry soul

Thou drown the sad remembrance of those wrongs,] So, in King Henry IV, P. II:

May this be wash'd in Lethe and forgotten ?Steevens.

Q. Eliz. Be brief, lest that the process of thy kindness Last longer telling than thy kindness' date. K. Rich. Then know, that, from my soul, I love thy

daughter. Q. Eliz. My daughter's mother thinks it with her soul. K. Rich. What do


think? Q. Eliz. That thou dost love my daughter, from thy

soul: So, from thy soul's love, didst thou love her brothers; And, from my heart's love, I do thank thee for it.

K. Rich. Be not so hasty to confound my meaning: I mean, that with my soul I love thy daughter, And do intend to make her queen of England. Q: Eliz. Well then, who dost thou mean shall be her

king? K. Rich. Even he, that makes her queen; Who else

should be? Q. Eliz. What, thou? K. Rich.

Even so: What think you of it, madam ?4 Q. Eliz. How canst thou woo her? K. Rich.

That I would learn of you, As one being best acquainted with her humour.

Q. Eliz. And wilt thou learn of me?
K. Rich.

Madam, with all my heart.5 Q. Eliz. Send to her, by the man that slew her bro

A pair of bleeding hearts; thereon engrave,
Edward, and York; then, haply, will she weep:
Therefore present to her,-as sometime Margaret
Did to thy father, steep'd in Rutland's blood,
A handkerchief; which, say to her, did drain
The purple sap from her sweet brothers' body,

4 Even so: What think you of it, madam?] Thus the folio, except that it reads—how instead of what. The quarto, without attention to the broken verse preceding:

I, even I: what think you of it, madam? “I am not (says Mr. Malone) sure whether it should not be printed, Ay, even I.” Steevens.

5 Madam, with all my heart.) I suppose the word - Madam, may be safely omitted, as it violates the measure. Steevens.

as sometime Margaret -] Here is another reference to the plays of Henry VI. Johnson.


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