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BRITISH AND FOREIGN

HISTORY

For the Year 1810.

CHAPTER 1. Introduciory Observations on the Importance of the Discussions in Parliament Heads of His Majesty's Speech-State of orber Countries--Debates on the Address to His Majesty in the House of Lords; and in the House of Commons-Mt. Whitbread's Motion on the Report of the AddressThe Earl of Liverpool's Motion for Thanks to Lord Wellington Mr. Bankes's Notice Du tbe Question of Reversionary Grants-Lord Poribester's Motion on the Expedition to Walcheren-Navy Estimates Mr. Bankes's Bill-Mr. Hor. net on the Bullion Trade Debates on Mr. Sheridan's Motion respecting the Standing Orders of the House--- Motion of Thanks to Lord Gambier- Annuity to Lord Wellington-Discussions on Sir Samuel Romilly's Atlempts to revise and improve ebe Criminal Law of the Land.

HE discussions in parliament, tween the two countries. This de. mestic concerns, and its own pri- disposition on the part of his mavileges ; or whether they refer to fo- jesty.” The house of commons reign expeditions, or to our relations was called on for fresh supplies, with other potentates and countries, with the assurance that his majesty will be found of considerable inter- deeply regretted the pressure which test and importance. When the two his subjects must feel, and which houses met for business, the open- the protracted continuance of the ing speech (which is given among war rendered inevitable. Both the Public PAPERS) was read by houses were desired to take into commissioners, on account of his their consideration the state of the majesty's illness and infirmities. inferior clergy: they were, at the The chief topics in that production same time, assured that the acwere, the Austrian peace ;--the ex- counts, to be hereafter laid before pedition to Walcheren ;--the situa- them, respecting the state of trade tion of Sweden ;--the necessity of and the revenue, would be found to assisting Portugal and Spain against be highly satisfactory; and finally, the ambitious projects of France; they were exhorted to call forth the victory of Talavera ;--and the their utmost efforts of vigilance, interruption of the intercourse with fortitude, and perseverance. America. With respect to this last Previously to our entering upon business it is said, “ His majesty the parliamentary debates, we must sincerely regrets this event; he has, consider, for a moment, the situahowever, received the strongest as- tion of other countries with which surances from the American minis- our interests are much involved. In ter resident at this court, that the our last volume we gave an account United States are desirous of main of the divorce of Bonaparte from taining a friendly intercourse be. the empress Josephine. It will there

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be seen that all the Napoleon fa- secrated in the Napoleon code, and mily met upon this important sub- on his endeavours to sow divisions ject. No offspring had resulted in the empire. To overcome the from their union, and the emperor pope's malignity, there remaind declared it to be necessary for the only one of two modes of conduct, welfare of his empire, that he should eitlier to create a patriarch for leave ait heir to the imperial throne, France, or to destroy the pope's To this proposal she gave her full sovereignty as a temporal prince. assent, in expressions of gratitude The first might have excited relito her lord, who had highly exalted gious disputes, the second was a her, and to whose welfare she was right belonging to the imperial ready to sacrifice every comfort of power. Neither the pope, says the life. The senate of France, upon exposé, nor any other priest, ought this representation, was as complai- to enjoy any temporal sovereignty. sant to Bonaparte as the parliament Never shall the emperor acknowof England had three centuries be- ledge the right of the triple crown. fore been to the wishes of Henry Besides the princes of the impeVIII. This subject does not appear rial house, other dependent kings to have excited a murmur in France. and princes had travelled to France The people of that country bad, to pay their homage to their patron about the same time, been flattered and creator. Most of them returned by a public exposé, laid before the after the business was ended for senate by order of the executive go- which they came ; but the king of vernment. In this, which seemed Holland remained for some time, to absorb all their thoughts, the with the hope, perhaps, of conci. victories of France over its enemies, lating his brother to his views of and the more important victories government. In this he was unover the face of the country, by successful, and in a short time after the digging of canals, levelling he resigned his sovereignty, and hills, piercing mountains, building the states of Holland have been bridges, ports and quays, are dis. annexed to the empire of France. played with great ostentation. Im- In the beginning of the year, a provements in agriculture, manu- question of great importance was factures, arts, sciences, literature, agitating in the North; for the diet form a part of the relation; and of Sweden were considering whethroughout it appears, that no so- ther there was any necessity for an vereign in Europe can rival the order of bishops. The question of emperor of the French in attention course was taken up very warmly to the splendour and comfort of his by the clergy, who saw in the abosubjects. There are in this public lition of this order, a diminution paper two points which affect reli- of their interests. It was proposed gion; the one is, that in France that the duties discharged by the there shall be universal toleration, bishops should, in future, be per. and the other relates to the pope, formed by the deans of chapters. on which the exposé dilates very This, it was thought, would be of considerably. It'dwells on his pro- great advantage to the country, by tection of the English in his capital; improving the state of the inferior -on his acrimonious briefs ;-on clergy, in appropriating the revethe hatred of the court of Rome to nues of every see, as it became va. that of France ;-on his complaints cant, to their support, and dividing of the principles of toleration con- among the deans of the cathedrals

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and collegiate churches, the duties bouring Indians are improving in performed by the bishops.

civilization, The late king of Sweden had Another quarter of the world has quitted the country. Sweden itself afforded some melancholy reflec. was busy in the regulation of its tions to England. The discontents government, in receiving the heir of the military in India have broken appointed to the crown, and re- out into open insurrection. From newing its connexion with the coun- 'the relations given by the governottries with which it was lately at war. general, there are points whichthe Russia had not been so successful in military cannot justify; and it rethe South as was expected. The meas for them to make out some grand vizier had gained a decisive palliatiun for their conduct. This victory over her troops, and com- is supposed to be found in certain pelled them to retire beyond the arrangements, which deprived the Danube. Still we do not look officers of their accustomed perqui. upon Constantinople as safe. The sites ; but it is difficult at this diFrench are pressing on the Turks, on stance to form a judgementon differtheir western limits; and wherever ences which excited such alarming Bonaparte is prepared for the con- consequences. This affair has led to test, a pretext will easily be found an investigation of the military syfor entering their territories. At stem in India, where there are two spepresent, his views are bent on Spain; cies of troops, the king's troops and and all the intelligence from that the forces of the East- India company. country proclaims the defeat of their How far the claim of each can be troops and the distraction of their made to agree with the general wel. councils

. The English have quitted fare of the whole, must be ascertain-. the country, and have taken up their ed by those who have a full knowtemporary residence in Portugal. ledge of our East-Indian concerns. The disputes between Great Bri

The differences between the comtain and 'America had been in- mon hall of London and the mi

a correspondence be- nistry were not settled. A refusal tween the American secretary of having been given to the receipt of state and Mr. Jackson: the States the petition, the common hall enter

and the mes. ed into very strong resolutions, and sage of the president complained of ordered them to be presented to the the conduct of our ambassador, king by the sheriffs. Access was now and forbid all communication with denied to the king's person. The shehim ; at the same time declaring, riffs made their report to the comthat an opening is left for a fresh mon hall, which entered into stroncommunication between the two ger resolutions, and very severe cencountries. The injuries to com- sures on the conduct of ministers. merce from the war are a great Such was the state of public affairs theme; and under the apprehension when parliament met on the 23d of of being compelled to take part in January. The topics just referred to it, the congress is called on for excited very warmelebates, as will be prudence in deliberation, and the seen in the subscquent pages. The country for spirit in execution. In first subject was, as usual, the adevery other respect the States are dress, which was moved in the house fourishing beyond the most san- of lords by the earl of Glasgow, and guine expectation, and the neigh- seconded by lord Grimstone, who

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expressed himself of a different opi- sures adequate to the present alarm, nion from those who thought that ing crisis of affairs, or else the voice our system of policy ought to be of the country would resound like merely home defence, to the exclu- thunder in their ears. When he sion of any assistance afforded to considered the state of the ministry our allies, and therefore justified the themselves, he was quite at a loss to expeditions undertaken by minic characterize them; the ministers sters. His lordship, in the conclu- popped in and popped out like the sion of his speech, dwelt upon the man and woman in a peasant's ba. necessity of unanimity amongst our. rometer ; they changed situations selves; and observed, that Britons and shuffled about, they rose up could only be injured by Britons; and like tadpoles, they assumed all sorts that we were placed by Providence of shapes, sometimes that of wasps, in such a situation that we might then of hornets, and sometimes that defy the world, if true to ourselves. of locusts, devouring and devastat,

The earl of St. Vincent said, he ing the country, had intended never to open his lips Lord Grenville.--"My lords, I . again in that house; but he could am anxious to address your lordships not sit silent after the disasters and thus early, for the purpose of mov. failures which had recently over. ing such an amendment as I conwhelmed the country ; disasters and ceive necessary at the present crisis, failures which were solely attribu. that I may anticipate any casual table to the ignorance and incapaci observation by which the discussion ty of ministers; of those ministers of this night might have been drawn who, on a former occasion, fired out of that course which I think guns, rung bells, and trumpeted ought to be adopted upon

the preforth shouts of joy, as if for a great sent occasion. We are now impetriumph, when that triumph turned riously called upon to do our duty, out to be the disastrous convention and to institute those inquiries which of Cintra ; and who now, in his the misconduct of ministers has majesty's speech, had converted a rendered absolutely necessary-a. disaster into another triumph, talk- misconduct, from which a series of ing of the glorious victory of Tala- disasters and calamities have resultvera, a victory which, to us, had alled to the country. My lords, my the consequences of defeat, the e. . heart is full, and I must give vent nemy taking prisoners whilst we to my feelings. The day must come took'none; taking also our hospital when ministers will have to render 'with our sick and wounded, and an account to parliament of the our own troops finally obliged to treasure which they have wasted, retreat. He did not mean to con- and the lives which they have sacridemn the conduct of the officers ficed, in useless and unprofitable exemployed either in Spain or in Wal- peditions. We owe it to the coun, cheren-he believed they did their try, that the king's ministers should duty-the disasters and failures in be called upon to render that acboth instances were to be attributed count, and we shall not do our duty to ministers. In the case of Wal, to the country if we do not insist cheren, the expedition was ill-planę upon it. The day will come when ned, ill-advised, and the object of the mere fact of an overflowing it impracticable. It was high time treasury, alluded to in the speech that parliament should adopt mean of the king's commissioners, will be

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