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no other offerings to the Master of Life than the first-fruits of the harvest. “ We know by our traditions," said the venerable prince Montezuma to the Spanish general Cortez, 6 that we who inhabit the country are not the natives, but strangers who came from a great distance.”

As striking a resemblance as any of the preceding is presented between the great temple founded in Mexico by the Inca Yupanque and the Temple of Solomon, of which many think it was a copy; so remarkable was it for its resemblance to this in its size, its plan, and its wealth. Clavagero and De Vega, speaking of the Indian temple, say thus : “ The altar was on the east side of the temple; there were many doors to the building, all of which were plated with gold; and the four walls, the whole way round, were crowned with a rich golden garland more than an ell in width. Round the temple were five square pavilions, whose tops were in the form of pyramids. The fifth was lined entirely with gold, and was for the use of the royal high-priest of sacrifices." Lord Kingsborough, in his Travels, not only declares that this temple at Palenque was built by the Jews, but that he considers it to be an exact copy of Solomon's Temple, being precisely after the model described by Ezekiel.

All this is so remarkable--and much more than is here condensed is adduced in the form of evidence in Major Noah's Discourse—that it is impossible not to be struck with it; and if the opinions of competent authorities, the customs of the people still preserved and now existing, as well as their own traditions as to their origin, all tend to the same conclusion, the inference is irresistible. Du Pratz, in answer to the question which he put to the Natchez tribe, 6 Whence come you ?" says that they answered him thus : " All that we know is, that our fathers, to come hither, fol. lowed the course of the sun, and came from the place where he rises. They were long in their journey, they were nearly perishing, and were brought to this wilderness of the sunsetting without seeking it.”

The latest, and, in many respects, the best authority as to the appearance of the Indians, is Mr. Catlin, who lived so many years among them, and whom we so often saw in New-York, with his extensive and interesting collection of Indian portraits, dresses, weapons, and curiosities. This gentleman, while he enumerates very many of the customs and usages of the Indians, which he thinks are clearly of Jewish origin, says, “ The first thing that strikes the traveller in an Indian country as evidence of the Indians being of

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Jewish origin (and it is certainly a very forcible one), is the close resemblance which they generally bear, in certain expression of countenance, to those people."

This subject might be pursued to great length ; but I purposely refrain, from the conviction that enough has been adduced of fact, reasoning, and authority, to prove at least the extreme probability of the Indians of America being really the descendants of the Israelites of old ; and I may add, that the belief in their Asiatic origin was strongly impressed on my own mind from all I saw of the Indians here; while there appears to me nothing in their present state and condition which may not be easily accounted for by the long lapse of ages which have passed since their migrations first began.

CHAPTER VIII.

Benevolent Institutions of the Americans.—This a very prominent Feature of the Na.

tional Policy - Almshouse for the poor at Bellevue.-Dutch Farm for charitable Labour on Long Island. - House of Refuge for destitute Boys and Girls.- Asylum for the Insane at Bloomingdale.--Instances of ferocious Manners in the Western States.Indifference of the American Editors to such things.-Murder of a Member of the Legislature by the Speaker.-Institution for the Deaf and Dumb at New York. Visit of the Indians to this Institution.-Benevolent Institutions for Seamen.-Quarantine Hospital on Staten Island. -Seaman's Retreat supported by the Funds of the State. -Seaman's Snug Harbour, for the Merchant Service. - Benevolent Institutions for Seamen continued. -Asylum for the Blind at Bellevue.- American Seaman's Friend Society, in Foreign Ports. – Sailor's Magazine, and Sailor's Library supplied. — Seaman's Savings Bank, Mariner's Church, Bethel Society.-Institution for the Support and Instruction of the Blind. ---Origin, Progress, and present Condition of this Establishment.-Asyluin for Lying-in Woinen, and Dispensary.--Society for the reformation of Juvenile Delinquents.

I TURN to that which forms one of the most prominent and praiseworthy features in the American character, their steady and liberal patronage of benevolent institutions, a great number of which we visited, and all with much pleasure, from the excellence of their management, the evident utility of the purposes for which they were established, and the amount of the good they effect.

The first of these is a spacious almshouse, situated at a place called Bellevue, about three miles beyond New York, on the shore of the East River. Into this asylum are received all persons who are destitute of the means of subsistence, and the opportunity of acquiring them, from whatever cause. Real and undoubted want is the only qualification for admission. The expenses of this establishment are thus defrayed : For such of the inmates as are citizens of the City of New York, the municipal authorities pay a stipulated sum per head, per day, out of the municipal taxes; for those who belong to particular counties in the State of New-York, the financial authorities of such counties pay the same rate; those that belong to other states are, after a given period, transferred to the almshouses of such states; and all foreigners, who are principally einigrants, have their expenses paid by the General Government of the United States. În general there are from three to four hundred persons in this establishment; but the late pressure on the mercantile classes having led to a great stagnation of employment among the labouring classes, the number is accordingly much augmented.

Another excellent establishment exists on Long Island, called the Dutch Farm, where a large area of ground has been purchased, and buildings erected; and to which all boys taken up as vagrants, without any visible means of subsistence, but who have not been convicted of crime, are taken and put to labour at various occupations, in which they nearly maintain themselves by their own industry, and are, at the same time, subjected to the wholesome discipline of mental culture and moral training, so that many of them become, in after life, worthy members of society, and almost all acquire the power of maintaining themselves in honesty and independence.

A third is the House of Refuge, to which all youths of both sexes, under maturity, who have been convicted of crime, are taken for reformation. When we visited this establishment, we found there about two hundred boys and fifty girls. They were kept in separate apartments, each under superintendents of their own sex; and what struck us as remarkable was, that, though it might be supposed that the conviction of crime would level all distinctions, as they were all convicted criminals alike, yet here the black and coloured children were made to sit in one part of the room, and the whites in another. Both were subjected to a rigid discipline, and every hour of their time was fully employed in some useful or improving labour. They exhibited, as we thought, the worst collection of countenances we had ever seen; and in their heads and faces the phrenologist and physiognomist would both have found abundant proofs of the general truth of their theories, that the shape of the cranium and the expression of the features are often faithful indexes of the minds within.

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The Asylum for the Insane was another of the benevolent institutions which we visited here. It is situated at a beautiful spot called Bloomingdale, about seven miles beyond the limits of the city of New York to the northward, the House of Refuge being only about two miles out of town in the same direction. The founder of this institution was a Quaker, and the members of this exemplary and benevolent body still take the warmest interest in its superintendence and direction. It was in the company of a worthy family of the Society of Friends, Mr. Samuel F. Mott, that we visited most of these institutions, and we spent the entire day with them at the Asylum in Bloomingdale.

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The house is pleasantly situated, in the centre of a narrow part of the Island of Manhattan, so that from its terrace the view is at once extensive and beautiful; the noble Hudson, with its lofty western cliffs, appearing on the one side, and the East River on the other. It is surrounded with pleasure grounds and spacious buildings, all adapted to the general purposes of the establishment, and is well placed for health, beauty of prospect, and exercise. It is a melancholy duty to visit those who are afflicted with the loss of reason, and painful to narrate in detail the peculiarities of each individual case. For myself, indeed, after seeing and conversing with some of these unfortunate beings, though I found them more happy than I had expected in their persons and mindsthough they were provided with every comfort, in space, cleanliness, apparel, bedding, books, instruments, music, flowers, and, indeed, everything that could cheer and de

light them-I was so overcome by the strength of my feel. ings as to be obliged to retire for a period into a room alone, and seek relief in tears, while the recollection of all that I heard and saw made me dejected for several days. Mr. Mott told me that this was the effect produced frequently on him; but that a sense of duty, and a frequent repetition of his visits, had enabled him to fortify himself in some degree for the discharge of his functions as a director and visiter, though never without some pain.

It would be impossible to speak too highly of the whole management of this establishment, as it respects the arrangement of the building, the furniture, the food, the ventilation, the amusements and recreations, and, indeed, all that can promote the health and comfort of the inmates. They go out in parties to take exercise, by walking or riding in the open air every day, under the care of their respective keepers, and behave with great propriety; once a month they are indulged with a ball, under the inspection of the superintendent; and it was stated that all parties, but especially the females, look forward to this monthly ball with the most pleasing anticipations, prepare dresses for it with great care, and are more frequently sobered down from an approaching fit of anger or violence by being told that, if they do not behave well, they shall not go to the ball, than by almost any other means that have yet been tried. The whole system of treatment is conducted on the principle of exciting all the good feelings and repressing the bad ; of substituting the allurement of hope for the terror of fear ; of making affection and respect the leading motives of action: and the success that has attended this mode of treat. ment justifies its permanent adoption.

There are, undoubtedly, a number of persons in the United States, many of them filling important and distinguished stations in life, who might be more appropriately placed as inmates of this Asylum than suffered to remain at large, and commit the outrages upon society of which they are guilty. The American papers daily teem with proofs of this ; but, as specimens of life and manners in the Western and Southern States, the following may be deemed suffi. cient :

“A FATAL RENCOUNTER. “A fatal rencounter took place on the 18th inst. (Nov.) at the Opelousas racecourse, between Thomas Reeves and Samuel Fisher, the former a young man of about twenty-three years of age, and the latter an elderly gentleman of sixty.

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