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the motto cast on it before it was sent out from England, “Proclaim liberty throughout the land, unto all the inhabitants thereof,” from Leviticus, chap. xxv., v. 10. This bell, though no longer used for general purposes, still occupies the place in which it was originally hung, and, like the great bell of St. Paul's in London, is used only on very special occasions; such as the anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, the visit of any distinguished personage-Lafayette, for instance, on whose arrival, at his last visit, it call. ed the people together to do him honour, as one of the he. roes of the Revolutionary war; and it will, no doubt, be preserved as a national treasure for centuries yet to come. In the Declaration room, as it is called, we saw a beautiful full-length portrait of William Penn, in his simple Quaker garb, with a countenance full of benevolence, holding in his hand a scroll, containing the treaty with the Indians for the sale of their lands; and in the back-ground was placed the great elm-tree under which the treaty was agreed to, with several Indian chiefs in their native costume. A full-length portrait of General Lafayette, taken during his last visit to America, served as a companion to this, and a small bust portrait of Washington was placed between; while at the opposite side of the room, facing the spectators as they enter, is a fine full-length statue of this idol of all American hearts, done in wood by Rush, executed with great spirit, and said to be a most faithful copy of the great original

. It stands on a pedestal, on which is the following inscription, written in letters of gold : “First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen."

Thus terminated our last day's stay in Philadelphia. On the whole, we had great reason to be pleased with our sojourn in this beautiful city. The regularity of its plan, the beauty of its public buildings, the foliage of its streets and squares, the delightful rides and drives of its environs, the great success of my public labours, uninterrupted by a single drawback, and the private hospitalities and kindnesses received from families and individuals, whose acquaintance ripened into friendship before we parted, were all calculated to make us remember Philadelphia and its society with more than ordinary pleasure ; while the spirit of its benerolent institutions diffused an atmosphere of so much moral purity over all, that we felt a desire to breathe it again ourselves, and spread its influence as far and wide as possible.

DEPARTURE FROM PHILADELPHIA.

453

CHAPTER XXXV.

Departure from Philadelphia.- Description of the Bustle of Embarking.–Beautiful

Scenery of the Delaware.-Passage by Burlington and Bristol.-Landing at Border
town. - Journey to Amboy by Railroad. --Fertility of the State of New Jersey:-Em-
barcation at Amboy in Steamboat.--Passage along the Straits of Staten Island.-
Elizabethtown, Newark, and Brighton.-Opening of the extensive Bay of New York.
--Splendid marine Prospect from the Harbour.-Second Impressions on approach to
the City-Short Stay and second Illness at New-York. - Visit to the Great West.
ern Steamer from England.

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On the morning of Saturday, the 16th of June, we left Philadelphia for New York, and at the early hour of half past five embarked on board the steamboat at the Chesnutstreet wharf. The scene was a very animated one; not less than 500 passengers were in motion on the deck of the boat, in the cabins below, and on the wharf at which she was lying. As few of these came without one friend to see them off

, and some had two or three, another 500 at least were produced by this class; and of coachmen, carmen, porters, and servants in attendance on the adjoining shore, there was at least an equal number. Mingled with all these were news. boys, with early copies of the morning papers ; peripatetic confectioners and fruiterers, with baskets of their several commodities; a harper, with his delicate strains of music, for the ladies' cabin; and a Scotch piper, with his bagpipes, for the upper deck, where the gentlemen were mostly congregated. In the boat itself was a barber's shop, for those who had been too much hurried to prepare their toilet before embarking; a public bar, at which were sold brandy, rum, wine, and bitters, of which a great many more partook than I had expected ; a captain's counting-house, at which all payments of passage-money were made ; a postoffice for letters, a news-room for the public papers; and besides all this, very spacious accommodations for breakfasting, lounging, and reading; the ladies, and the gentlemen accompanying them, having the after-cabin devoted to their use; but those gentlemen who were so unfortunate as not to have ladies with them were confined to the fore-cabin only.

We left the wharf at six o'clock, with many a waving of handkerchiefs and kissing of hands from the boat and from the shore, as if the voyage were to be a very long one, and the parting final, which to some, perhaps, it might have really been; and, soon after getting under weigh, we were

summoned to breakfast, which was obliged to be served at two separate hours, half past six and half past seven, as the only method of ensuring space and comfort for all. The breakfast was as ample and as excellent as the most fastidious could desire; and the utmost decorum and propriety prevailed during its enjoyment, as far as we could observe, with great mutual civility, and a desire to assist and please among the passengers; more so, I think, than is usual in English steamboats of a similar description. This was the more agreeable to us to witness, as we had been taught by American persons themselves to anticipate great rudeness, hurry, and confusion in steamboat meals; this, however, was perfectly well conducted.

Our route to New York from hence was to ascend the River Delaware for about thirty miles; then land at Bor. dentown, and proceed from thence by railroad another thirty miles to Amboy; and, embarking there in another steamboat, complete the trip by another forty miles of navigation to New-York; the distance of one hundred miles, or thereabout, including all the transfers and stoppages, being accomplished in seven hours and a quarter, or nearly at he rate of fourteen miles an hour all the way.

The passage up the River Delaware was extremely agreeable. Abreast of the City of Philadelphia the river exceeds a mile in width, nor does this sensibly diminish for a dis. tance of 15 or 20 miles up the stream, when it begins to contract, but retains a breadth of half a mile, at least, up to the point of debarcation. On both sides the banks presented a charming appearance, for, though not much variegated by elevation or depression of surface, the exuberant fertility that everywhere met the eye, the rich green pastures, abun. dant wood, and constant succession of pretty retreats over. hanging the very margin of the stream, marked it out as the land of plenty, in which the bounty of nature was spread out with a lavish hand, and where no one need want for food, raiment, and shelter who would be honest and industrious.

In the course of our passage up the river we saw on the western bank the country-seat of Mr. Nicholas Biddle, the president of the United States' Bank, which presents a chaste Doric front, with portico and pediment, after a de. sign by Mr. Walter, the architect of the Girard College, and, surrounded as it is by a judicious admixture of shrubbery and lawn, it produces a very pleasing effect.

Soon after, about nine o'clock, or three hours after leav. ing Philadelphia, we arrived at Burlington and Bristol, two

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BURLINGTON.-BRISTOL-BORDENTOWN.

455

pretty towns that occupy the opposite banks of the Dela. ware, Burlington being on the eastern bank, and in the State of New Jersey, and Bristol being on the western bank, and in the State of Pennsylvania ; the river being the boundary-line which separates these two states from each other.

Burlington, which is the largest of the two, contains a population of from 5 to 6000 persons. It was originally founded by Quakers, and continues to be a favourite place of retirement with the members of that body. It is, consequently, regular in its plan, neat in all its arrangements, and perfectly clean and orderly in its condition; these being the uniform results of Quaker influence or Quaker management. It was mentioned to me as a saying current among this body of people, that New-York was the place to make money, Philadelphia the place to spend it in, and Burlington was the quiet retreat for old age, when both making money and spending it gave way to other thoughts, and when persons desired to pass their declining days in tranquillity, and sink in peace to their graves.

Bristol, on the opposite bank, presents quite as pretty an appearance from the river, and though not so populous, is still a tolerably large country village or small country town; but the inhabitants would be offended, perhaps, at such a designation, as it is an incorporated city. We were told that the unfortunately “celebrated” Rowland Stephenson, the London banker, who some years ago fled from England to America with a large amount of money, abstracted from the banking firm of which he was a partner in London, resided here at Bristol, in “ easy circumstances," and had some few associates among the less scrupulous residents of the place.

From hence we proceeded upward along the stream, sometimes, steering close to one bank, sometimes to the other, but rarely in the centre, and admiring the exuberant fertility and beauty of both, till we reached Bordentown, where we were to be transferred from the steamboat to rail. road cars. The disembarcation was soon effected, and the line of cars in motion, but the change was far from agreeable. The weather was delightful, as a fresh breeze greatly tempered the heat of the atmosphere; but from some defect in the construction of the engines, which requires reform, the ashes thrown up with the smoke of the chimneys fell in such quantities on the passengers in the cars as to be extremely disagreeable, besides burning the dresses of such of the ladies as were nearest the engines, the sparks falling on their

persons before the fire in them was completely extinguished, so that innumerable small holes were burned through the parts of their garments on which they fell.

The route by the railroad was through the State of Nere Jersey, over a generally level tract of country, there being very few and very slight elevations or depressions in the surface to preserve the general level throughout the whole way.

New-Jersey is celebrated for its productions of fruit; and on either hand, as we passed on, we saw orchards of apples, pears, peaches, and other fruits, the trees of which were full of promise. The rich grass lands, general fertility, and exuberant foliage of the woods that lined our road were delightful to the eye, and gave us a very high conception of the productive powers of this part of the country. We enjoyed it, too, perhaps the more, because of the pleasing contrast which its present state of foliage and fruitful. ness presented to the bleak and barren appearance of the same track when we passed it in February last.

About eleven o'clock we arrived at Amboy, having per. formed the distance of 30 miles in something less than two hours, the general rate of speed, therefore, being about 15 miles the hour ; but in some particular spots, where a slight descent assisted the progress of the cars, a mile was per. formed in two minutes and a half, being at the rate of 24 miles an hour. It is not for want of power that the engines do not go at greater speed, but from restrictive regulations of the directors, which prohibit it, having reference, no doubt, to economy, durability, and safety in these restraints.

Embarking on board the steamboat at Amboy, we found the change delightful, and proceeded on our way to Nero York. On our passage from this city to Philadelphia in February last, we were obliged to make the voyage from New-York to Amboy by passing round the outer or eastern edge of Staten Island, as the inner passage was thickly frozen and unnavigable, and the outer one, indeed, had floating ice of 15 and 16 inches in thickness all the way, the cold being intense. Now, however, the heat was as much in ex. treme, the thermometer being at 90°; while on the morning of our embarcation in February it was 6° below zero, such was the difference of temperature in four months. But the inner passage being now open, we did not regret the change, as it gave us an opportunity of seeing the long narrow channel on the west of Staten Island, and between it and the New Jersey shore.

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