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Besides these, there are the following excellent institutions, all well supported and well conducted, in different parts of the city. A general Dispensary, for supplying medicine and advice to the poor gratuitously, supported by voluntary contributions amounting to about 1000 dollars an. nually. A Catholic Orphan Asylum, for the education and support of Catholic orphans, under the management of the Sisters of Charity. A Benevolent Society, for educating and supporting destitute female children, whether orphans or otherwise, conducted and maintained by the Episcopalians. A society for the relief of the poor of the Methodist Episcopal Church. A Charitable Marine Society. A Fe. male Penitent's Refuge Society. A Humane Impartial Society, for bettering the condition of the large class of fe. males who live by needlework, and whose inadequate wages often leave them in a state of want, and exposed to many temptations. An Indigent Sick Society, composed of Protestant ladies, who undertake to visit personally the indigent sick in the several districts of the town, of which each takes charge of a separate one, and to supply them with food, clothing, and other comforts needed by the sick, while the dispensaries supply them with medicine. A Mary-andMartha Society, of the same description, conducted by Cath- , olic ladies; and a Dorcas Society, who prepare clothing and materials for the necessitous poor, and by bazars or fairs, by subscriptions and donations, as well as by the labours of their own hands, greatly contribute to relieve the sufferings of their fellow-beings.

Baltimore is often called “ The Monumental City," from the fact of its containing a greater number of public monuments—though these are still very few-than the cities of the Union generally, in which the practice of erecting public monuments has hardly begun to receive much popular support.

The most important of these is the “Washington Monument,” which was first proposed to be erected in 1809, and for defraying the expenses of which a lottery was permitted by the state, to raise the sum of 100,000 dollars, or about £20,000. This amount being thus secured, the place selected for it was an elevated part of the northern edge of the city, where the requisite area of ground was given for this purpose by Colonel Howard; and on the 4th of July, 1815, the foundation-stone was laid, on the anniversary of the Declaration of Independence by the United States of America. This monument is a noble Doric column of mar.

ble, rising from a base of ample dimensions, 50 feet square and 20 feet high. The shaft of the column is 160 feet, its diameter about 20 feet, and the statue of Washington, which stands on its summit, is 13 feet in height. The base and pedestal are of pure white marble; the shaft, which is built like the Monument of London, is hollow, with a winding staircase up the inside ; it is of a whitish marble also, here and there slightly veined with blue streaks. The gallery at the termination of the capital, to which visiters ascend, is also of pure white marble; and the colossal figure on the summit, which represents Washington after he had resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the American forces at Annapolis, is of the same material.

Though every part of the successful career of Washing. ton is reverted to by the American people with great satisfaction, there is none on which they dwell with greater ad. miration than on this last great act of his military life, when, having attained to a power as great as that of any of the warriors of other countries, with more of the affection as well as admiration of his adherents and followers than perhaps any hero that ever lived, he did not use this power as an Alexander, a Cromwell, or a Napoleon would have done, but cheerfully and voluntarily resigned it into the hands of those from whom he received it, and for whom he held it but in trust. This act of virtuous self-denial and conscientious discharge of duty has therefore endeared his memory to the wise and good of all countries, but espe. cially of his own.

The workmanship of this column is of the first order, and the monument, as a whole, both from the chasteness and good taste of its design, its size, and its commanding position, is equal in beauty to any similar column in London or Paris. It has a general resemblance to the Duke of York's monument in Waterloo Place, overlooking St. James's Park; but it is greatly superior in size, materials, and execution, and forms a prominent object in all the distant views of Baltimore.

The prospects of the city from this gallery, with the ex. tensive sea-view down the Patapsco to the Chesapeake on the one hand, and the distant land-view over the northern and western boundaries of Baltimore on the other, richly reward the visiter for the trouble of his ascent.

The second of the monuments of Baltimore is that called “ The Battle Monument,” which stands on what was once the site of the old courthouse of the town, but is now an

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open space, called Monument Square, nearly in the centre of the city. It is intended to commemorate the battle of North Point, when the British attacked Baltimore in 1814, at the period of their burning and destroying expedition up the Potomac to Washington. The British were in this instance successfully repulsed, and this monument was erected by the American survivers of the battle, to the memory of their comrades who fell in defending their hearths and their homes. It was designed by the architect Maximilian Godefroy, who built the Unitarian Church, and the Gothic Chapel of St. Mary's for the Catholics of Baltimore. The effect of

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the monument is striking, though the design is somewhat incongruous. The base is Egyptian, rising to the height of about twenty feet from the ground, characterized by the lessening breadth of the square mass as it ascends, the outline showing the inclined lines within the perpendicular. On each front is an Egyptian door way of the same form, and the whole is surmounted by a deep overhanging cornice, with the winged globe and other Egyptian symbols. Above this base rises the column, which represents a Roman fasces, on the bands of which are inscribed, in bronze letters, the names of those who fell in the battle which it commemorates.

At the angles of the square base on which this column is erected are four figures called griffins, which seem to unite the body of the lion with the head and wings of the eagle;

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and on the summit of the fasces which forms the circular column is a figure meant to be, and called, “the Statue of the City," holding a wreathed garland or crown for the honoured dead in her hand, and having the American eagle at her feet.

The monument is composed of fine white marble, its entire height is 52 feet, and its auxiliary decorations are rich and ornamental. Separate inscriptions on the north and south front record the erection of the monument to commemorate the battle of September 12, 1814; and the recollections it cherishes are such as the inhabitants of Baltimore have no reason to be otherwise than proud of, as their defence of their homes was as gallant and patriotic as the attack upon them was unprovoked and unsuccessful.

The third monument of Baltimore is that called “the Armistead Monument,” which is erected in the Gothic niche of a building near the City Spring, and was set apart to the memory of the brave Colonel Armistead, who conducted the defence of Fort M‘Henry, at the entrance of the harbour, against the bombardment of the British on the 13th of September, the day following the battle of North Point. He was not killed in the engagement, but died about four years afterward, in April, 1818, at the age of thirty-nine; and his defence of the fort at which he commanded being still fresh in the recollection of his grateful townsmen, they honoured themselves as much as him by erecting this monument to his memory

There are several springs or fountains in different parts of the city, which add to its beauty and convenience. The City Spring is enclosed by an iron railing, and covered by a dome supported by pillars; it is surrounded by trees and foliage, and has a very pleasing effect. The Western Fountain, in another quarter of the town, is also covered with a dome supported by columns, and is used for the supply of ships in the harbour of Baltimore with water. The Eastern Fountain is much larger, and adorned with more of architectural beauty. It has an Ionic colonnade, open all around, supporting a roof over the spring, which is enclosed within iron railings. The Centre Fountain, in front of the market, is also an ornament to the spot. The markets are excellent structures, and well adapted to their several uses.

It is to be regretted that the introduction of fountains is not more frequent in the cities of England and America. Whoever has travelled much in Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal, cannot fail to have admired the many



beautiful fountains adorning the open places and public squares of the ancient cities of these countries. The refreshing coolness of the atmosphere, the sparkling brilliance of the waters, the soothing murmur of their falling sounds, and the air of freshness, luxury, and repose, which are all sources of enjoyment, are in themselves sufficient recom. mendation. It seems astonishing that London, Edinburgh, and Dublin, as well as New-York, Philadelphia, and Washington, should be so deficient as they are in these combinations of beauty and utility.

Of places of public amusement there are not many, and these are but little frequented. There is a large theatre, but the taste for dramatic exhibitions is everywhere on the decline in America; for it is only on occasions when some very great attraction, or some new or distinguished performer is presented, that an audience can be collected. There is a smaller theatre, which, however, is entirely abandoned ; and there was recently a large circus for the exhibition of horsemanship, but it was destroyed by fire, and nearly all the valuable stud of horses perished in the flames. There is a good concert-room in the Law-buildings, and another over the Assembly-room, and music appears to be well cultivated and enjoyed. The suite of dancing and refreshment rooms, in which the regular winter balls are held, are not surpassed in beauty by any in Europe. There are many much larger; but for richness, taste, and effective decora. tion, nothing can be more chastely beautiful than these. The Baltimore Museum, which is well furnished with collec. tions of various natural productions, a skeleton of the great mammoth, and other curiosities in nature and art, has also a minor theatre attached to it, in which farces and vaudevilles are performed, but to very thin audiences.

There are some public gardens in Baltimore, the Columbian, Vauxhall, and the Citizen's Retreat; and public baths have been lately introduced on a good scale. The sports of the turf are much patronised here, and in Maryland the horses are considered to be better trained than in any other state of the Union. At a place called Canton, a few miles from Baltimore, down the river, a large training establishment exists, and horses are kept there during the intervals between the racing seasons, at which time persons interested in this amusement come here in great numbers from the North and the South. An excellent rule prevails in the race-club, that no gambling of any kind is allowed; and

Vol. I.-NN

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