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many delightful friendships, of which I shall long cherish a pleasing and grateful remembrance.

Soon after my landing I presented the numerous letters of introduction with which I had been favoured by friends in England to families of the greatest influence here, and this brought us at once into the midst of a most extensive circle of agreeable acquaintances. As considerable public curiosity had begun to be awakened, however, by my visit to the United States, from the notice taken of it by the pub. lic journals, I thought it the shortest and most effective method of correcting erroneous impressions, and placing the motives and object of my visit in their true light, to issue an Address on this subject.*

My courses of lectures descriptive of Egypt and Palestine were soon afterward announced ; and as the great length of the city, as well as the difference in the classes of society that reside in different quarters, rendered it desirable to have more than one place for their delivery, an arrangement was made to give one of the courses at Clinton Hall, near the centre, for the mercantile classes, and one at the Stuyvesant Institute, at the northern extremity of Broadway, for the more opulent and fashionable classes who reside in that newly-built and elogunt quarter of the town. Both these lecture-rooms were well adapted for their purpose, and capable of accommodating with ease, the former about 700, and the latter about 500 auditors; and each course was so well attended, that while the Clinton Hall was usually filled, the Stuyvesant Institute became too crowded, and many individuals were unable to obtain ad. mission. This obliged us to remove to the chapel of the University, a beautiful Gothic building forming part of the general edifice in Washington Square,

which was cheerfully granted to me by the president and chancellor, and the remaining lectures of my course were delivered there to very crowded audiences.

After the close of these two courses in New York I was invited by a requisition, signed by about 100 of the principal residents of Brooklyn, to visit them, and deliver the same lectures at the Lyceum of their city. In this duty I was agreeably occupied for about a month, crossing over from New York to Brooklyn on each evening in a carriage, which drives into the steam ferry-boat, and is conveyed to the other side across the East River without the necessity of the passenger leaving his vehicle, and returning by the

* See Appendix No. III. e,



same mode after the lecture was over. The lecture-room at the Brooklyn Lyceum, like that at the Stuyvesant Insti, tute in New York, is built in the form of the old Greek theatre, semicircular, with the ranges of seats rising in succession behind each other ; but, though Brooklyn is by much the smaller place—the population of New York being about 300,000, and that of Brooklyn 40,000—its lectureroom is much larger, more lofty, better proportioned, and was filled every night by a larger audience than had yet at, tended any of the lectures in New York.

At the termination of the Brooklyn course I was still farther detained for six weeks longer in New York, to repeat my course on Egypt at the Stuyvesant Institute; to give a second course on Palestine at the lecture-room of St. Luke's Church in Hudson-street; and a third course, on Egypt and Palestine combined, at the Chatham-street Chapel, each in different quarters of the city, and attended by different classes of auditors: that at the Stuyvesant averaging 600; that at St. Luke's, in Hudson-street, about 200 ; and that in Chatham-street Chapel not less than 2000; each being up to the fullest capacity of the respective places to contain.

Independently of these labours on my own account, I had the pleasure to assist at the following public meetings, which were fixed for those evenings on which my own labours were suspended ; and, although these intervening days were originally set aside for rest, I was too happy in the appropriation of them to the objects named to regret for a moment the extra labour they involved.

The first of these public meetings was held in the Tabernacle, a large church or meeting-house in Broadway, to advocate and promote the cause of Temperance. The Tabernacle is one of the largest places of worship in New-York, and will contain nearly 3000 persons. On this occasion it was filled to overflowing, and large numbers were unable to obtain admission. At half past seven the chair was taken by S. V. S. Wilder, Esq., and the meeting was opened with prayer by the Rev. Mr. Duffield. I was then introduced to the audience by a short address from the chairman, after which I spoke for about two hours, giving the history of the temperance reformation in England, the efforts made in the House of Commons, the evidence procured by its committee of inquiry, and the recent progress of the question in the public mind in Britain, followed by some general arguments in favour of the cause, as applicable to this and every other country on the globe. The audience, large as it was, evin

ced the deepest interest in the subject, and the meeting closed with a more than usual expression of enthusiasm.

The second of these public meetings was one held by the New-York Peace Society, which took place in Chathamstreet Chapel. This building, though not so large as the Tabernacle, will comfortably accommodate 2000 persons seated; and, when the aisles and all other standing-places are filled, 2500 can be admitted. Every part of it was crowded on the present occasion, and many went away for want of room. The chair was taken at seven, and the meeting was opened by sacred music, vocal and instrumental, beautifully executed by a very numerous and well-trained choir. Here also, as at the Tabernacle, the deepest attention was manifested; and during the two hours of my ad. dress—which was devoted to an exposition of the horrors and miseries of War, its injustice, and the long train of evils which it inflicted on mankind, the desirability of its abolition, and the practicability of establishing a Congress of Nations, to which, as to a supreme tribunal, all those disputes between nations, now settled by an appeal to the sword, might be referred for adjudication, and war thus be averted—nothing could exceed the interest evinced by the hearers, or the unanimity of the approbation with which these statements and sentiments were received. The meet. ing was closed, as it was opened, by sacred music, and the effect was altogether most impressive as well as agreeable.

The third public meeting that I attended was to advocate and promote the cause of National Education. This was held in the Tabernacle on Tuesday, the 14th of December, and attended by as many as the building would contain. The meeting was called by John Orville Taylor, Esq., a gentleman who has taken a deep interest in the promotion of education and the improvement of the common schools, and who for some years past has given his time almost exclusively to this object. At seven o'clock, on the motion of Col. Stone, the editor of one of the principal daily newspa. pers, Samuel Mott, Esq., a member of the Society of Friends, and a gentleman who takes a prominent part in the promotion of education, was called to the chair. After this, Mr. Taylor addressed the meeting for about an hour, detailing the defects of the common schools in the country districts of the several states ; showing how these defects might be remedied; and proposing that, for the purpose of carrying forward the requisite improvements, a society should be formed, to be called “ The Common School Union,” to act



for the benefit of the common schools of the country, as the “Sunday-school Union” does for the Sunday-schools of the states: a proposition which was well received.

Mr. Taylor was followed by the Rev. Mr. Brackenridge, of Princeton, one of the most eloquent of the public men of the present day, who made a very powerful speech in support of the general cause of education, and urged the necessity of carefully excluding persons who were known to be infidels from all participation in the management or direction of schools, either as teachers or assistants. At the close of his speech a remarkable scene occurred : a well-dressed and middle-aged lady rose in front of the gallery, and asked permission of the chairman to put a question to the speaker who had just sat down. She represented herself as a foreigner, and spoke with the accent of a German, but used correct and appropriate language, and expressed herself with great firmness and self-possession. Permission having been granted from the chair, the question she proposed was this: Whether the reverend gentleman who had spoken so severely of infidels was ready to accept her challenge, and prepared to fight the infidels with their own weapons ?" A Α. scene of great excitement followed, the indignation of the audience being loudly and generally expressed; and all the efforts of the chairman and those on the platform to repress it were for some time ineffectual. At length, silence being restored, Mr. Brackenridge rose, and said that he was quite prepared to answer the question proposed to him; and his reply was this: “ That he had been taught from his infancy, and Christianity has since confirmed the propriety of the lesson, that it would be altogether unbecoming his character as a man to take up any kind of weapons to fight with a

The lady appeared satisfied with the reply, or, seeing the feeling of the meeting to be so strongly against her interruption, made no farther appeal, and order was therefore speedily restored.

After this I addressed the meeting, by the introduction of the chairman, for about an hour and a half, on the subject of education generally, its state and condition in various countries of the world, and the peculiar importance of this question to America, as being the country in which the mass of the people exercised a larger share of power than in any other nation in the world ; it being therefore of the utmost consequence that this power should be directed by intelligence, which could only be communicated, generally and extensively, by a good system of national education. The VOL. I.-D



meeting did not separate till 10 o'clock, and its proceedings were marked by great animation and enthusiasm.

The fourth public meeting that I was called on to attend was that of the anniversary of the New York City Tract Society, an extensive and useful body, who employ sixteen paid missionaries, at regular annual salaries, to devote their whole time to visiting the most wretched and abandoned part of the population in their own dwellings, and, by the use of printed tracts, conversation, admonition, and persuasion, incline them to change their modes of life, attend to the better management of their temporal affairs, and devote some portion of their time to spiritual ones. These missionaries are assisted in their benevolent labours by the voluntary services of eleven hundred male and female district visiters, who day by day devote some portion of their time to the same object, and are instrumental in rescuing large numbers every year from profligacy and dissipation ; prevailing on hundreds to join the Temperance Society, to become more economical and industrious, to attend public worship, to send their children to the Sunday-schools, and so to amend their lives in industry, sobriety, morals, and religion as to become changed beings-better husbands, better wives, better parents, better children, and better members of the community.

At 7 o'clock the chair was taken by the president of the society, Zachariah Lewis, Esq., a venerable old gentleman above seventy years of age. Music was then performed by the New-York Academy of Sacred Music, assisted by the choir of the Tabernacle, the building in which we were assembled, and nothing could be more chaste or perfect than its execution. Prayer was then offered up by the Rev. Dr. Ferris, of the Reformed Dutch Church ; after which the annual reports of the secretary and treasurer were read, and speeches were delivered in support of the objects of the society by the Rev. Mr. Remington, of the Methodist Church, the Rev. J. W. Cooke, of the Episcopal Church, the Rev. Silas Ilsley, of the Baptist Church, and the Rev. W. Adams, of the Presbyterian Church, thus embracing ministers of the principal religious bodies in the city. At intervals of about an hour apart, two other pieces of sacred music were performed by the members of the Academy and the choir united, each with equal sweetness and skill, adding greatly to the charm of the proceedings. It was half past nine before I was called on by the chairman to terminate the business of the evening by a closing address; and though the subject and the interest I felt in it drew me on beyond half past ten, the

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