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We remained over the next day at Philadelphia, to rest after our labours, and to see the very numerous friends who called to pay us visits of respect. We saw but little of the city now, however, as it was our intention to return here and pass the month of May.
On the morning of Saturday, the 24th, we set out on our journey to Baltimore; and, being taken by four-horse omnibuses to the station of the railroad, about three miles out of Philadelphia, we there got into large cars, similar to those in which we came from Amboy, and proceeded at about the same rate, of fifteen or sixteen miles per hour, on our way.
The country was still covered with snow, and still presented the same dreary and monotonous aspect of uncultivated soil and small brushwood surface. When we arrived opposite to Wilmington, a pretty large town of from eight to ten thousand inhabitants, a deputation came out to meet me, headed by the venerable Judge Hall, to entreat that, on my return from the South, I would pass an evening with them, and devote it to a temperance meeting, which I readily promised to do if practicable.
From hence we proceeded on our way, and soon after passed over the boundary-line between the free and the slave states, passing out of the last of the former, Pennsylvania, and entering the first of the latter in going south, Delaware. From thence we soon after entered Maryland; and in both of these it seemed to all our party that we could perceive a marked difference in the wretchedness of the huts or dwellings, the bad state of the fences, and the slovenly and neglected appearance of the whole country, from the free states through which we had approached the slaveholding territory.
After crossing several streams, by long, low bridges, and one by a magnificent floating-house propelled by steam, we entered Baltimore about half past two, having thus performed the journey from New-York to Philadelphia, a distance of ninety-six miles, in seven hours, and from Philadelphia to Baltimore, about the same distance, in six hours and a half, at the very low rates of three dollars each for the first journey, and four dollars each for the second.
At Baltimore we were met by a party of gentlemen, who had prepared apartments for our reception and provided a handsome dinner for our refreshment. After partaking this with them, and enjoying some rest, we attended a temperance meeting in the Methodist Chapel, where, after an open
DEPARTURE FOR WASHINGTON.
ing prayer by the Methodist bishop (for these were Episcopal Methodists), and a speech from the Rev. Robert Brackenridge, of Baltimore, I was occupied for about two hours in addressing the auditory on the temperance question, and advocating the principles of total abstinence from all that can intoxicate as the only basis on which any great reform can be effected among the masses of the people generally.
We remained at Baltimore during the Sunday, attending the Methodist Chapel in the morning, and the Episcopal Church in the afternoon; and the contrast between the worship in these was very striking indeed. In the former all was simplicity, earnestness, and warmth of devotion; in the latter all was ostentatious, cold, formal, and unimpressive. Yet the Episcopal Church was attended by a large congregation of gay and fashionable visiters, while in the Methodist Church the poor and the humble formed the majority of the worshippers. Each were, no doubt, suited according to their tastes; for, while in the Methodist service there was everything adapted to give consolation to the truly devout, in the Episcopal there was nothing that could offend the most fastidious taste, or disturb the self-complacence of those who needed only a pastime, without much thought or feeling, and who found what they sought.
On Monday, February 26, we left Baltimore for Washington by the railroad, starting at nine o'clock; and, after traversing as dreary and uninteresting a tract of country as that over which we had passed on the two preceding jour neys, we reached Washington, a distance of thirty-six miles, in three hours, arriving there about twelve o'clock.
It may be remarked, as a striking proof of the prevalence of fires in all the great cities of this country, that on the morning of our leaving New-York there was a very large fire; on the first night of our sleeping in Philadelphia there was also a great fire; on the night of our arrival in Baltimore there was a fire that consumed several houses within a few doors of the inn where we slept; and on the day of our reaching Washington there was also a great fire. Such a succession of fires as these could hardly be found to be in the track of a traveller in any part of the world except this; at least I remember nothing like it in all my travels in other countries.
Stay at Washington.-Funeral of a Member of Congress who had been shot in a Duel. -Visit to the House of Representatives.-Funeral Service.-Impressiveness of the Scene.-Effect on the Auditors.-Publication of an Address to both Houses on Duelling-State Temperance Meeting of Members of Congress.-Speech in the Hall of Representatives.-Vote of Thanks, and Resolution to publish the same.--Commencement of Lectures in Washington.-Letter on the Subject of Slave Abolition.-Advertised Rewards for runaway Slaves.-Offer of Purchase by Slave-dealers.-Prejudice of native Americans against Foreigners-Illustration of this in an Editor at Washington.-Visit to the first Drawing-room of the President-Description and Charac ter of that Entertainment.-All Classes, without distinction, freely admitted-Remarkable Order and Decorum of so mixed an Assemblage.
On the day after our reaching Washington (February 27), we were present at a very melancholy and imposing ceremony, in the Hall of Representatives in the Capitol, the funeral of one of the members of the Legislature, who had been shot dead in a duel by a brother member on the preceding Saturday. The circumstances of this affair were briefly these: Mr. Jonathan Cilley, member of the House of Representatives from the State of Maine, had used some language in debate which gave offence to Colonel James Watson Webb, the editor of the New-York Courier and Enquirer; on which Colonel Webb came on to Washington, and sent a message by his friend Mr. William Graves, representative from Kentucky, demanding to know of Mr. Cilley whether he had used the words reported to be said by him, and, if so, calling on him to give satisfaction. Mr. Cilley declined acknowledging his accountability to any man out of the House for words spoken under the privilege of a member of the Legislature in debate; and added also that he was determined not to get into a controversy with Colonel Webb. Mr. Graves insisted on it that his was an insinuation against the honour of his friend, and he demanded that Mr. Cilley should acknowledge Colonel Webb to be a man of honour and a gentleman. This Mr. Cilley declined to do, saying he would express no opinion either way as to the character of Colonel Webb, as he did not regard himself as in any degree responsible to him or to any other man for his conduct as a member of the House. Upon this Mr. Graves, who had no previous quarrel with Mr. Cilley on his own ac count, thought it his duty to challenge Mr. Cilley to the field, to wipe out the insinuation against the character of Colonel Webb. Mr. Cilley at first hesitated, saying he had the highest respect for Mr. Graves, and should regret exceedingly
any difference between them; but he was left no alternative, and unfortunately yielded to the demand. They accordingly went out, provided with the weapons agreed upon, rifles, and, under the direction of their respective seconds, were placed at eighty yards' distance. After the first shot, instead of being withdrawn by the seconds, which would certainly have been done in Europe, there was a deliberation between the parties, and, after a pause of more than one hour, it is said, they were made to fire a second time, each of course taking deliberate aim. Neither of the combatants being hurt by the second fire, a second parley was held, which lasted even longer than the former, and at the close of which the gentleman who acted as second to Mr. Graves proposed, and the second of Mr. Cilley acceded to the proposal, that if neither party were killed or wounded after the third shot, the distance between the combatants should be shortened. The third shot, however, produced the death of Mr. Cilley, who, receiving his antagonist's ball through the body, was a lifeless corpse in five minutes after he fell, leav ing a wife and four young children to mourn his loss.
This duel had excited a great sensation among all classes, and the funeral of the deceased being fixed to take place this morning, the ceremony to commence in the House of Representatives, the hall was filled at a very early hour. We went there with a party of friends as early as ten o'clock, and before eleven every part of the building was filled, the lower part of the hall by members and persons connected with the public establishments, the galleries around with ladies and gentlemen, residents of the city, and strangers or visiters; and the profound silence that everywhere prevailed produced a solemnity that was deeply affecting. At twelve o'clock the chair was taken by the Speaker of the House, when the corpse of the deceased was brought in, and deposited on a bier in front of the speaker's chair. The members of the Senate then entered, and took their stations in front of the representatives. After these came the judges of the Supreme Court, then the heads of departments and sec retaries of state, and, lastly, the President and Vice-president of the United States, who were seated on each side of the coffin, while the chief mourners, consisting of the colleagues and personal friends of the deceased, stood behind the corpse with scarfs, in full costume of mourning. All the members of both houses, and all the public officers, wore crape bands on their left arms, and the great majority of the vast assembly were dressed in black.
VOL. I.-A A
The proceedings were opened by an extemporaneous prayer from the chaplain of the Senate, which was solemn and appropriate. After this followed a funeral address by the chaplain of the House of Representatives, who, with great feeling, adverted to the melancholy spectacle, and animadverted upon its cause, and deprecated, with great boidness and force, the false sentiment of honour and the vitiated state of public opinion out of which this fatal duel had originated; and it appeared to me that, so entirely was the feeling of the House and general auditory in favour of the reverend doctor's views, if a proposition could have been submitted at that moment in favour of the legal suppression of this cruel practice, under any penalties that could be affixed, it would have met with the unanimous assent of all present.
About one o'clock the mournful procession moved off from the Hall of Representatives, to convey the unfortunate victim of this false code of honour to the silent tomb; and at this point of the proceedings there was scarcely a dry eye beneath the spacious dome. For myself, I was so impressed with the duty of contributing, by every means within my power, to the cherishing and keeping alive the sentiment of repugnance to duelling which this tragical occurrence had awakened, that, on retiring to my room, I addressed notes to several of the leading members of both houses, enclosing a copy of an address which I had caused to be presented to the members of both houses of the British Parliament during the last session of my being a member, entitled "Reasons for Legislative Interference to prevent the Practice of Duelling," preparatory to a bill which I had announced my intention to bring into the House of Commons to effect this end, and which, had circumstances enabled me to continue longer a member of that assembly, I should have presented to the House for its consideration.
By some of my friends, to whom this address was shown, it was strongly recommended to publish it at once; but by others it was thought that the intrusion of the sentiments of a stranger and a foreigner at such a moment as this would be thought an interference, and be regarded with jealousy by many. These differences were happily compromised, however, by my friend Mr. Delavan, of Albany, addressing me a letter, asking my permission for him to publish it as an American citizen, he feeling it his duty to his country to call their attention to the subject at this particular moment; and I was, of course, too happy to comply with this request. It