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tive distributers; frequent tours made for distribution; millions of readers, and God richly adding his blessing-4000 dollars.
For Northern India, for use of missionaries of Western Foreign Missionary Society at Lahore, who have two presses, and have distributed extensively in journeys and tours; the mission being also about to be re-enforced-1000 dollars.
To Orissa, for the use of English General Baptist and American Baptist missionaries; this being the "Holy Land" of India, and site of the temple of Juggernaut, annually visited by nearly half a million of pilgrims. "If Hinduism is ever to be subverted," says a missionary at this station, "I believe tracts will occupy the first place as the instrumental cause"-1000 dollars.
For the Telingas, 13 millions in a country between Orissa and Madras, on the Coromandel coast, for a new mission of American Baptist Board; large portions of the Bible, Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, and several tracts having been already printed at Madras in the Telinga or Teloogoo language-500 dollars.
For Ceylon, where are seven mission stations; 27 missionaries; 39 native assistants; 122 free schools, and a seminary of young men; a press; 30 tracts issued; many native distributers, and the distributions much blessed-2000 dollars.
For Southern India, for use of missionaries of American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions; station at Madura, among the Tamul people, a stronghold of paganism, and other stations about to be established-1500 dollars.
For the Mahrattas, where are presses, with a stereotype foundry; one or more missionaries wholly devoted to the preparaton and distribution of tracts and books, which are found an indispensable auxiliary-1000 dollars.
For the Sandwich Islands, where 3420 page of Hawaiian have been prepared; three presses issue from six to en million pages annually; and the missionaries have at no time beer able to meet the immediate, pressing demand for books-1000 dolla.
For Persia, for use of exploring mision of the Protestant Episcopal Church-500 dollars.
For Nestorians in Persia, who etain much of the simplicity of the Gospel, and express great anxiey to receive Christian books: mission station at Tabreez-500 dollars.
For Asia Minor, for use ofmissions of A. B. C. F. M. at Smyrna, Scio, Broosa, and Trebizond; ere being at Smyrna a large printing estab lishment, with type for arious languages, a stereotype foundry, and nu merous publications issued-1500 dollars.
To Smyrna, for me use of mission of Western Foreign Missionary Society, who here a press and extensive openings for distribution, especially in modern Greek-1000 dollars.
To Grece, for use of mission of Protestant Episcopal Church, who have an efficient press at Syra; printed last year, at the society's expense, 1,714,000 pages; have a harmony of the Gospels and other valuable works in preparation, and wide openings for distribution. New mission recently sailed for the island of Crete-1500 dollars.
To Greece, for missionaries of A. B. C. F. M.; 28,000 publications distributed from Athens the last year, and many more might have been given had supplies been furnished; "people have applied for books from all parts of the country"-500 dollars.
To Constantinople, chiefly for the Armenians, who "seem to be waking up en masse," including Jews in Turkey, Greeks, &c.-1000 dollars. To Russia, for use of tract friends in St. Petersburgh, who labour for
60 millions; have issued 50 tracts in Russ, Finnish, Estonian, Swedish, Mongolian, &c., all of which have the cordial sanction of the censor; some volumes in preparation. Tracts to the value of 600 dollars were sold by one individual in one extensive tour; many are purchased by the nobility for distribution; parcels sent to friends at various points throughout the empire, with many evidences of the Divine blessing— 3000 dollars.
For Hungary, embracing two million Protestants, and for tracts in Bohemian and Wendish, to be committed to Mr. Samuel Elsne of Berlin, and the Rev. Dr. Paterson, at the earnest solicitation of Rev. Dr. Paterson-300 dollars.
Prussian Tract Society at Berlin, for the Poles, by urgent request of Rev. Dr. Paterson, many of whom are crying for help, both within and beyond the limits of Prussia-300 dollars.
Germany, Lower Saxony Tract Society, Hamburg, tracts being a prominent medium for diffusing evangelical truth; and wide doors open, in the midst of opposition-300 dollars.
Hamburg, for Missionary of American Baptist Board, who makes extensive tours for distribution, and a colporteur who is devoting himself to the work-300 dollars.
To France, embracing thirty-two millions, for the use of missionaries of American Baptist Board-500 dollars.
For South Africa, to the South African Female Tract Society at Cape Town, in commexion with Rev. Dr. Philip; the Pilgrim's Progress and six American Tracts being already printed in Dutch, with many active distributers. Rev. Dr. Philip says, "There is nothing within the range of human means that we more need than money to assist us in printing" -500 dollars.
To the Moravian Brethren, for aid at their respective mission stations, especially in the West Indies and Canada-700 dollars.
For North American Indus, for missions of American Baptist Board, especially at their press in Sawanoe-200 dollars.
In addition to the funds aised for these extended operations, and the personal labour which the clergy and ministers undergo in carrying them uit, there is a degree of zeal, energy, and untiring activity among them for the promotion of benevolent and religious objects, which is deserving of all praise; it may indeed be doubted whether in any country in the world there is so much of purely gratuitous and disinterested labour devoted to the temporal and spiritual interests of the whole community, and especially the most friendless and destitute portions of it, as in America, if New-York be regarded as a fair specimen of the Union, and it is asserted that New-England is in this respect still its superior.
State of Literature and the Arts in the City.-Common Schools.-Statistics of Education.-Newspapers and Periodical Publications.-The Knickerbocker.-Monthly Magazine.-New-York Review, by Dr. Hawks.-Superiority of the Common-school Assistant.-Model worthy of imitation in England.-Music and Painting.-Mr. Cole's Pictures.-Architecture and the Fine Arts.-New-York Churches.-University.-Astor House.-House of Detention.-Building in Egyptian Style.-Columns of the Portico, after a Temple at Philoë.-Defect in the want of Elevation for its Site.Striking Effect of the Massiveness of the whole.
THE common schools of New-York are objects of great interest to those who feel the full importance of the value of general education. A great effort has been lately made to increase the number and improve the efficiency of these schools, not merely in this state, but throughout the whole Union. The gentleman who has taken the most active and practical part in this valuable labour is Mr. John Orville Taylor; and his qualifications for the task may be judged of from the fact of his filling a professorship of the science of education in the New-York University, and his being publicly recommended for that office by some of the most eminently learned and distinguished men in the country. At the beginning of 1836, a monthly periodical was commenced by him, under the title of "The Common School Assistant;" its avowed object being to awaken the public feeling as to the importance of education, and to collect and diffuse all kinds of information calculated to improve the modes of teaching, and stimulate the public to adopt the best plans for the extension of knowledge generally. This was first published at Albany, the seat of the Legislature of this state, but it has been since removed to New-York, as the better central point of general communication. The paper is admirably conducted; it is full of the most interesting and valuable information; its pages are honoured with contributions from the first pens in America; and it is furnished at the cheap rate of fifty cents, or about two shillings English, per annum. The circulation is accordingly immense, approaching 50,000 monthly.
During my stay in New-York, a public meeting of the friends of education was held at the Tabernacle, in Broadway, for the purpose of forming a "Common School Union," on the principle of the Sunday-school Union, or the British and Foreign School Society. To effect this, the
sum of 5000 dollars, or about £1000 sterling, was required; and such was the effect of the appeals made at this meeting, that the whole sum was raised in a few days. This Union is now in full operation, with an office, an establishment for correspondence, and all the necessary elements for securing complete efficiency. It has already awakened the spirit of the neighbouring states; and state conventions are following each other, in various parts of the country, to consider of the best means of improving the modes of education in the common schools of their respective districts. I had the good fortune to enjoy nach of the society of Mr. Taylor, as we lived under the same roof; and from his conversation, and the perusal of his journals and papers, I derived all the information I wished respecting the statistics of education here, though I relied only on my own personal examination of the schools of New-York for the knowledge of their actual present condition.
In the State of New-York the whole population is 2,174,000; and the number of children between five and fifteen years of age, taught in the common schools, is 537,398, or about one in four of the whole population. The number of school districts, in each of which there is a common school, is 10,207; and the annual expenditure on these is 1,235,256 dollars. The amount of the school-fund belonging to the state is 1,917,494 dollars, from which an income of 110,000 dollars is annually distributed among the common schools, and the rest is made up by local rates and individual payments. This statement does not include the City of NewYork, which alone gives gratuitous education to 14,105 children in daily common schools, at an expense of nearly 100,000 dollars a year.
In my examination of several of these schools in the city, I was much pleased with the plan and arrangement of every department, from the infant school to the more advanced; and I thought the teachers, male and female, of a higher order of intellect and manners than are usually employed in the national and Lancasterian Schools in England, and the proficiency of the pupils, in general, superior.
In all these common schools, whether in country or town, the pupils pay nothing for their instruction. They are open day schools, to which any one desiring it may send their children daily for free education. They are maintained, partly by the school-fund of the state, partly by local rates of townships, and partly by municipal grants and city taxes. They are everywhere, of late, improving, and are already
SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES.
sufficiently numerous to educate all the children of the country, though many poor families, from different motives, are unwilling to send their children there: some because they are not impressed with the value of education, and some because they wish to retain the services of their children for profitable purposes. The effects of the Common School Union, and the monthly circulation of 50,000 copies of its publication, added to the frequent public meetings, lectures, and travelling agencies in motion, will, however, gradually remove all existing obstacles, so that education will become more and more general, and more and more perfect every year.
In addition to the common schools of the city and the state, there are a great number of excellent boarding schools for both sexes in New-York, to which the more opulent families, who do not desire a free education for their children, send them to be taught. It is believed that nearly 10,000 young persons of both sexes are under this kind of education in New-York alone at the present moment.
The colleges for professional education in theology, law, and medicine are also abundant; and the University is well furnished with competent professors in almost every branch of learning, so that the mouns of cheap and excellent education are within the reach of all who choose to avail themselves of that advantage.
The literature of New-York is but ill represented by its newspapers, of which I had occasion to speak before; and I need say no more here than that, from various causes and