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12. The infamy of his lewdness has been such as decen
forbids me to describe ; not will I by mentioning partteulars, put those unfortunate persons to fresh pain, who have not been able to save their wives and daughters from his impurity.
13. And these his atrocious crimes, have been committed in so public a manner, that there is no one who has heard of his name, but could reckon up his actions. Having, by his iniquitious sentences, filled the prisons with the most industrious and deserving of the people he then proceeded to order numbers of Roman citizens to be strangled in the gaols; so that the exclamation, “I am a citizen of Rome," which has often, in the most distant regions and among the most barbarous people, been a protection, was of no service to them, but on the contrary brought upon them a spceclier and more severe punishment.”
$14. I ask now, l'erres, what you liave to advance against this charge? Will you pretend to deny it? Will you pretend that any thing false, that even any thing aggravated is alledged against you? Had any prince, or any state committed the same outrage against the privilege of Roman citi. zens, should we not think we had sufficient ground for declaring immediate war against them?
*15. What punishment then ought to be inflicted upon a tyrannical and wicked pretor, who dared, at no greater distance than Sicily, within'sight of the Italian coast, to put to the infamous death of crucifixion, that unfortunate and innocent citizen, Publius Gavius Cosanus, only for his having asserted his privilege of citizenship, and declared his intention of appealing to the justice of his country against a cru. el oppressor, who had unjustly confined him in prison, at Syracuse, from whence he had just made his escape. i
16. The unhappy man, arrested as he was going to .embark for his native country, is brought before the wicked pretor. With eyes darting fury, and a countenance distorted with cruelty, he orders the helpless victim of his rage to be stripped, and rods to be brought; accusing him, but without tiie feast shadow of evidence, or even of suspicion, of having coine to Sicily as a spy.
17. It was in vain that the unhappy man cried out,“ I am a Roman citizen-I have served under Lucius Pretius, who is now at Panormus, and will attest my innocence." The blood thirsty pretor, deaf to all he could urge in his
own defense, ordered the infamous punishment to be inflicted. Thus, fathers, was an innocent Roman citizen publicly mangled with scourging, whilst the olny words he uttered amidst his cruel sufferings, were, “ I am a Roman citizen!"
18. With these he hoped to defend himself from violence and infamy: But of so little service was this privi. lege to him, that while he was thus asserting his citizenship, the order was given for his execution--foi his execution upon the cross! 19. O liberty - sound, once delightful to every Roman
KO sacred privilege of Roman citizenship! Once sacred, now trampled upon! But what then? Is it come to this?
20. Shall an inferior magistrate, a governor who holds his own power of the Roman people, in a Roman province, within sight of Italy, hind, scourge, torture with fire and red hot plates of iron, and at last put to the infamous death of the cross, a Roman citizen? .
21. Shall neither the cries of innocence, expiring in agony, nor the tears of pitying spectators, nor the majesty of the Roman commonwealth, nor the fear of the justice of his country, restrain the licentious and wanton cruelty of a monster, who in confidence of his riches, strikes at the root of liberty, and sets mankind at defiance?
22. I conclude with expressing my hopes that your wisdom, and justice, fathers, will not, by suffering the atrocious and unexampled insolence of Caius Verres to escspe due punishment, leave room to apprehend the danger of a total subversion of authority, and introduction of general anarchy and confusion.
Speech of CANULEIUS, a Roman tribune to 'the consuls ; in
which he demands that the Plebians may be admitted into the Consulship ; and that the law prohibiting Patricians and Plebians from intermarrying, may be repealed. 1.
THAT an insult upon us is this! If we are not so
rich as the Patricians, are we not citizens of Rome as well as they ? Inhabitants of the same country? members of the same community? The nations bordering upon Rome and even strangers more remote, are admitted not only to marriages with us, but to what is of much greater importance, the freedom of the city.
2. Are we, because we are cominoners to be worse
treated than strangers! and when we demand that the insple may be free to bestow their offices and dignities whom they please, do we ask any thing unreasonable new?. Do we claim more than their original inher right? What occasion then for all this uproar, as if universe was falling to ruin? They were just going to ha violent hands upon me in the senate house.
3. What! must this empire then be urravoidably o turned? Must Rome of necessity sink at once, if a Plet worthy of the office, should be raised to the consuls! rip The Patricians, I am persuaded, if they could would prive you of the common light.
4. Ít certainly offends them that you breathe, that is speak, that you have the shapes of men. Näy, but to n a commoner a consul would be, say they, a most enorm thing. . Numa Pompilius, however, without being som as a Roman citizen, was made king of Rome.
5. Tbe elder Tarquin, by birth not even Italian, nevertheless placed upon the throne. Servius Tullius se son of a captive woman (nobody knows who his father pisi obtained the kingdom 'as the reward of his wisdom virtue.
6. In those days, no man, in whom virtue shone cons i. uous, was rejected or despised on account of his race descent, 'And did the staté prosper the less for that? W. not these strangers the very best of our kings? And sur ! sing now,
that á Picbian should have their talent and merit, must not he be suffered to govern us?
7. But, “ we find upon the abolition of the legal power, no commoner was chosen to the consulate." And what of that? Before Numa's time there were no pontiffs in Rome. Before Servius Tullius' day, there was no census, no diris. ion of the people into classes and centuries. Who ever heard of consuls before the expulsion of Tarquin the proud ? Dictators, we all know, are of modern invention: and so are the officers of tribunes, edifes, questors.
8. Within these ten years we have made decemvirs, and we have unmade them. Is nothing to be done but what has been done before? That very law, forbidding marriages of patrici:ns and plebians, is not that a new thing? Was there any such law before the decemvirs enacted it? And a most shameful one it is, in a free state.
9. Such marriages, it seems will taint the pure blood
of the nobility! Why if they think so, let them take care to match their sisters and daughters with men of their own sort. No plebian will do violence to the daughter of a patrician. Those are exploits for our prime nobles.
10. There is no need to fear that we shall force any body into a contract of marriage. But to make an express law to prohibit marriages of patricians with plebians, what is this but to show the utmost contempt of us, and to declare onepart of the community to be impure and unclean ?
11. They talk to us of the confusion there will be in families, if this statute should be repealed. I wonder they don't make a law against a commoner's living near a nobleman, or going the same road that he is going ; or being present at the same feast, or appearing in the same market place.
12. They might as well pretend that these things makė sonfusion in families, as that intermarriages will do it. Does not every one know that their children will be ranked according to the quality of their father, let them be a patricjan or a plebian? In short, it is manifest enough that we have nothing in view but to be treated as men and citizens ; nor can they, who oppose our demand, have any motive to do ig, but the love of domineering.
13. I would fain know of you, consuls and patricians, is the sovereign power in the people of Rome, or in you? I hope you will allow, that the people can at their pleasure either make a law or repeal one.
14. And will you, then, as soon as any law is proposed to them, pretend to enlist them immediately for the war, and hinder them from giving their suffrages by leading them into the field?
15. Hear me, con suls. Whether the news of the war you talk of is true, or whether it is only a false rumor spread abroad for nothing but a color to send the people out of the city, I declare as a tribune, that this people who have already so often spilt their blood in our country's cause, are again reacly' ta arm for its defense and its glory, if they may be restored to their natural rights, and you will no longer treat us like strangers in our own country. 16. But if you account us unworthy of your
alliance by intermarriages, if you will not suffer the entrance to the chief offices in the state to be open to all persons of merit indifferently, but will confine your choice of magistrates
to the senate alone ; talk of wars as much as ever you please ; paint, in your ordinary discourses, the league and power of your enemies, ten times more dreadful than you do now, I declare that this people whom you so nuch despise, and to whom you are nevertheless indebted for all your victories, shall never more enlist themselves ; not a man of them shall take arms! not a man of them shall expose his life for imperious lords, with whom he can neither share the dignities of the state, nor in private life have any alliance .by marriage.
Speech of PUBLIUS SCIPIO, to the ROMAN ARMY, before the
battle of the Ticin. 1.
TERE you, soldiers, the same army which I had
with me in Gaul, I might well forbear saying any thing to you at this time ; for what occasion could there be to use exhortation to cavalry that had so signally vanquished the squadrons of the enemy upon the Rhone ; or to legions by whom that same enemy, flying before them to avoid a battle, did in effect confess themselves conquered.
2. But, as these troops having been enrolled for Spain, are there with my brother Cneus, making war under my auspices, (as was the will of the senate and people of Rome) I, that you might have a consul for your captain against Hannibal and the Carthagenians, have freely offered myself for this war. You then have a new general ; and I a new army. On this account, a few words from me to you will neither be improper or unseasonable.
3. That you may not be unapprised of what sort of enemies you are going to encounter, or of what is to be red from them; they are the very same, whomin a former war you vanquished both by land and sea; the same from whom you took Sicily and Sardinia, and who have been these tweaty years your tributaries.
4. You will not, I presume, march against these men with only that courage with which you are wont to face other enemies; but with a certain anger and indignation, such as you would feel if you saw your slaves on a sudden rise up against you.
5. Conquered and enslaved, it is not boldness, but necessity that urges them to battle ; unless you can believe that those, who avoid fighting when their army was en