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ciples of peace, religion, morals, and honour, which the king had endeavoured to plant in an ungrateful soil.
But before we enter into an examination of the account which the works before us give of this last enterprize, we must notice the publications of Count Waldbourg and M. de Pradt, which relate to the former period of his life.
To our readers Count Waldbourg's narrative offers little novelty -we anticipated, in our former article on this subject, almost every thing which the count has to tell : he frequently, from misinformation, no doubt, misstates some of the events; but he also states some slight facts which had escaped us : and on the whole, his little work is not only interesting as an amusing pamphlet, but as giving a very near, and we may say interior view of Buonaparte's conduct and feelings during the extraordinary crisis of his journey to Frejus. The personal cowardice, the proneness to falsehood, the vulgarity of manner and language of Napoleon the Great are here proved by the most indisputable evidence- his own. We shall select a few instances, which may serve as a supplement to our former account of this journey.
Some of the resources of disguise to which his fears drove him were very ridiculous:--the following picture is in a high style of farce.
• Whenever we appeared, we still found people who saluted their former ruler with“ Vive le Roi !" and some terms of abuse against himself; but nothing like violence was attempted. Still however he was constantly in alarm. He not only remained in General Koller's calèche, but even begged he would allow the servant to smoke who sat before, and asked the general himself if he could sing! in order that he might dissipate, through such familiar conduct, any suspicion in the places where we stopped, that the emperor sat with him in the carriage. As the general could not sing, Napoleon begged him to whistle ; and with this singular music we made our entry into every place; whilst the emperor, fumigated with the incense of the tobacco-pipe, squeezed himself into the corner of the calèche and pretended to be fast asleep.'-p. 38.
The following account of his conduct in the latter part of his journey, when the indignation of the people began to be pronounced against him, is fuller than that in our former Number.
Close to Avignon, where the relays of horses awaited us, the emperor found a crowd assembled, who with tumultuous cries saluted him with “ Vire le Roi! Vivent les Alliés ! A bas Nicolas ! A bas le Tyran, le Coquin, le mauvais Gueux !” and still coarser abuse. In compliance with our instructions, we did every thing in our power to lighten the evil, but could only partially effect it; and Napoleon endured with the greatestpatience every term of abuse uttered against him.' 'In Orgon, the next place where we changed horses, the conduct of the populace was
most outrageous. Exactly on the spot where the horses were taken out, a gallows was erected, on which a figure in French uniform sprinkled with blood was suspended. On its breast it bore a paper with this inscription :
“ Tel sera tôt ou tard le sort du tyran!" The rabble pressed round his carriage, and elevaled themselves on both sides in order to look and cast in their abuse. The emperor pressed into a corner, looked pale and disfigured, and at length, through our assistance, he was happily brought off and had proceeded a quarter of a league from Orgon; he changed his dress in his carriage, put on a plain blue great cuat and a round hat with a white cockade, mounted a post horse, and rode on before as a courier.'
• Having overtaken the emperor's carriage about half a league on the other side of Orgon, it shortly afterwards entered a miserable publichouse, lying on the road-side, called La Calade. We followed it, and here first learnt Buonaparte's disguise, who in this attire had arrived here, accompanied by one courier only. His suite, from the generals to the scullions, were decorated with white cockades, which he appeared previously to have provided himself with. His valet-de-chambre, who came to meet us, begged we would conduct ourselves towards the emperor as if he were Colonel Campbell, for whom on his arrival he had given himself out. We entered, and found in a kind of chamber this former ruler of the world, buried in thought, sitting with his head supported by his hand. I did not immediately recognize him, and walked towards him. He started up as he heard somebody approaching, and pointed to his countenance bedewed with tears.'- Here we dined; but as the dinner had not been prepared by his own cooks, he had not courage to partake of it, for fear of being poisoned. He felt ashamed, however, at seeing us all eat both with good appetites and good consciences, and therefore helped himself from every dish, but without swallowing the least morsel; he spat every thing out upon his plate or behind his chair. A little bread, and a bottle of wine taken from his carriage, and which he divided with us, constituted his whole repast. In other respects he was conversible and extremely friendly towards us. Whenever the landlady, who waited upon us at table, left the room, and he perceived we were alone, he repeated to us his apprehensions for his life, and assured us the French government had indisputably determined to destroy or arrest him here. A thousand plans ran through his brain how he might escape, and what arrangements ought to be made to deceive the people of Aix, who he had learnt awaited him by thousands at the post-house; and now again with all his apprehensions and indecision he renewed his solicitations of counsel. He even begged us to look around and see if we could not any where disa cover a private door through which he might slip out, or if the window whose shutters upon entering he had half closed at the bottom, was too high for him to jump out at in case of need. On examination, I found the window on the outside was provided with an iron trelliswork, and threw him into evident consternation as I communicated to him the discovery. At the least noise he started up in terror and
changed colour. After dinner we left him alone, and as we went in and out found him frequently weeping.'— For greater precaution another disguise was now assumed. General Schuwaloff's adjutant was obliged to put on the blue great coat and round hat in which the emperor had reached the inn, that in case of necessity he might be regarded, insulted, or even murdered for him.
Napoleon, who now pretended to be an Austrian Colonel, dressed himself in the uniform of General Koller, with the order of Theresa, wore my camp cap, and threw over his shoulders General Schuwaloff's mantle. After the allies had thus equipped him, the carriages drove up, and we were obliged to march to them through the other rooms of the inn in a certain order, which had been previously rehearsed in our own chamber.'—pp. 28—37.
Such was the state to which he, at whose frown emperors and kings had trembled, was reduced ; "and there is, perhaps, no scene of his eventful life more interesting, and, we may say, instructive, than that which Count Waldbourg exhibits to us of Napoleon the Great weeping for very fear, and endeavouring to conceal his terror and his tears from the landlady of a country pot-house.
But we must hasten to M. de Pradt, an author who is the very reverse of the Count. The Prussian soldier is unaffected, modest, and impartial. The Archbishop of Malines, ostentations, bold, and prejudiced. He is a man of considerable talents, but of no taste; and we confess that his rambling, sparkling, and antithetical style accords exceedingly well with the character of the chief hero of his history—we mean Buonaparte ; and we think it necessary to say so, as this diplomatic prelate evidently thinks that he is himself the greatest man, not only in his own book, but in the world. Hear how he begins
The Emperor, in one of his gloomy reveries, was overheard muttering these memorable words: One man less, and I should have been master of the world! Who then was this one man, who, endued with almost divine authority, said to this torrent, “ Non amplius ibis !” thou shalt go no farther? What were the arms, the treasures, the means by which he arrested the course of this haughty desolator of mankind? Who was this prodigy?'---p. 1.
To this inquiry, we should naturally have answered, The Duke of Wellington; our readers will partake the surprize which we felt at reading in the next sentence, 'cet homme, c'est moi,'-I am that man. The explanation of this riddle is, that the archbishop mismanaged his embassy to Poland, and Buonaparte attributed to the want of Polish co-operation the failure of the attack upon. Russia.
M. de Pradt, however, is not a mere pretender--he was in fact a considerable person. He had been one of Buonaparte's attendants
at Bayonne, in 1808; one of his deputation to the Pope at Savona, in 181; and was afterwards attached to the imperial household in the office of Grand Almoner of France. He appears to be a person of quick, epigrammatic conversation of a speculative and sanguine disposition, and of talents not incapable of those coups de théâtre which, under Napoleon's regime, were considered as coups d'état :-this qualification probably recommended him to Buonaparte, who did not perceive, till he came to employ him without coadjutors, that
'Tel brille au second rang qui s'éclipse au premierand that he whose chief talent seems to be a power of describing with liveliness and force the transactions of others, may not be equal to the conduct of great transactions himself.
The first account which M. de Pradt gives us of his conversations with Buonaparte, is highly characteristic of the mingled magniticence and madness of the ex-emperor's conceptions, and the littleness of his personal vanity.
Some days after my return from Savona, in 1811, the Emperor detained me after his levee, an honour which for a year past he had frequently done me. At the conclusion of a long conversation, in which he entered with great self-complacency into all the details of his tour in Holland, he exclaimed, in a transport of intoxication at the immensity of his power, “ In five years I shall be master of the world ; Russia only remains; but I shall crush her.” He accompanied this menace with a corresponding gesture, which he several times renewed." Paris shall come to St. Cloud---I shall build fifteen sail of the line every year--. not one shall put to sea till a hundred and fifty are ready---I shall be master at sea as on land, and then all commerce must needs pass through my hands---I will not import a pound more than I export: I will exchange million for million.” This was his only commercial canon; he had laid it down in conversation with me in the first journey to Spain. He several times returned to the idea of being master of the world in five years, and stretching out Paris to St. Cloud. Another characteristic expression dropped from him, which, though not comected with my present subject, I cannot help mentioning. .
"He had just returned from Holland. He was delighted : but what pleased him most of all was a notion that the Dutch had formed an high opinion of his economy. “ The rogues have found out,” (said he, with great glee, ten times over, and I have since heard him frequently repeat it,) “ that I did not furnish my palace at Fontainebleau all at once." ?-p. 23, &c.
M. de Pradt attended the emperor to Dresden as his almoner, and was there selected for the important office of ambassador to Poland ; and in this character he had opportunities of observing his master, both in the high flow of his vanity in the outset of the invasion of Russia, and in the lowest ebb of bis fortunes at its close : these opportunities, with a previous intercourse of ten years, have enabled him to paint, in a scattered and diffuse, but in a very striking and forcible style, the character of Buonaparte; and this portrait in fact constitutes the chief value of the work.
these * Commodes insultes, paisibles jactances. + Ruse doublée de force.
It is pleasant to observe the pretension to honour and courage which this abbé-archbishop sets up, because he composed this work in the month of March, 1814, when Buonaparte was still in power. It is good,' he says, 'to hear the convenient insults and safe bravadoes* which are now a-days' directed against the power at which these prudent assailants trembled, while the lion was still roaring round the capital.' Yes, it is very good, and the best of it is, that this same M. de Pradt is precisely one of those persons whom he so livelily describes. But we must proceed from the historian to the history.
It is clear that Buonaparte, as the first step of his march over the eastern European world, wished to obtain a solid and permanent footing in Poland. It appeared to him the fulcrum by which he could overthrow Russia, Austria, and Prussia successively, and a garrison from which he could keep in awe all the neighbouring countries whose subjection he had planned.
Here, however, a preliminary difficulty occurred which, though it formed the basis of M. de Pradt's mission, he never seems to have discovered, till he was recalled to Paris-namely, that Poland could not be erected into a place d'armes,' (if we may use the expression,) except by her (nominal) re-establishment; but this could not be effected without offence and danger to Prussia, Austria, and Saxony; whose assistance was necessary to Buonaparte's plans against Russia, and he did not feel himself yet in a position to act openly. His object therefore, most clearly, was that while the Prussian, Austrian, and Saxon auxiliaries were employed against Russia, Poland should by a general, and apparently spontaneous insurrection, throw off the yoke of the dividing powers, and erect itself into one sovereign state under the protection, if not the sceptre of Napoleon. To bring this about, without an open breach with Austria and Prussia, was the real object of this embassy: and poor M.de Pradt (who now confesses that he did not understand all the finesse and imbroglio in which the emperor delighted,—the 'cunning lined+ with violence' --which he employed) is astonished that when he, the ambassador, wrote a fine speech for one of the Polish ministers, to pronounce in the diet, in which (agreeably, says he, to my instructions) the words Poland, kingdom, re-establishment, were distinctly pronounced, Buonaparte, instead of thanking him for his eloquence, was displeased at his meddling in the affair, and