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season of the year; more especial- is a most essential one) safely conly in a climate like our's, where we ducted through the dangerous peare subject to continual variations riod of youth. of weather, and sudden changes of The wearing of Aannel undertemperature in the atmosphere. dresses has of late been strongly

Whether these fantastic fashions recommended by some eminent men have been adopted from the Frencli, of the medical professsion, and the some doubt; but, if the supposition obvious advantages accruing from be admitted, I believe it may be this practice have fully justified justly asserted, that they have been their recommendation; but it unmore pernicious and destructive fortunately happens, with many, the in their consequences, than even name of flannel carries with it an French principles.

idea of something coarse or uncomIt is a well-known fact, that with fortable, when contrasted with the us, by far the greater proportion of linen usually worn. This objection, females die of consumption, or com- however, exists but in imagination, plaints in the chest, the foundations and it requires only a trial to conof which are commonly laid in colds, vince them that the wearing of it caught either by exposure to night- (particularly of the soft Welshi kind) air, or perhaps, more frequently, is, of all other substances that come from the omission of due cloathing: in contact with the skin, the most these, so often repeated, seem to pleasant and genial. Without at produce an aptitude to disease: we all entering into a physical definition hear them complain of chilliness, of its manner of acting, it need only cough, pain in the side, or similar be observed, that, by a constant symptoms, which at first are looked transpiration from the surface of upon as slight indispositions, are the body being kept up, an universal lightly treated, or perhaps wholly equable action is preserved between disregarded. Thus the insidious the superficial vessels, and those of approaches of this direful malady the heart and large arteries; the are suffered to pass unnoticed. Dur- functions of the organs essential to ing the succeeding summer, its ra- life are less liable to become disorvages are probably suspended, and dered, and susceptibility to cold is they are fattered with returning considerably diminished. health; but, no sooner do nipping If, then, ye aimable part of manfrosts, or chilling winds, set in, than kind, on the terms we have stipudisease appears in an aggravated lated, the attacks of disease can form, and, after a tedious confine- be warded off, or rendered less frement and illness, the hapless female quent, your comfort can be secured, is cut off in the bloom of life; or, or your apprehensions allayed, listshould she be preserved by art en to the dictates of your reason, through the cold months of winter, and suffer not the tyrannical sway it serves but to ensure her death on of fashion to beguile you out of that their return. This is not an exag: most estimable of blessings......... gerated picture, nor designed as a “ Health." bug-bear to produce fear, but is erery day seen verified in numbers of instances. Yet, whilst we see females of strong stamina, and ro

EMPEROR OF RUSSIA, ALEXbust consitutions, who, in the natural course of things, might have lived JUSTICE and clemency are in many years, fall victims to their ail cases the fairest and firmest pilown imprudence; we also observe lars of the throne; and the prince, others, who, with great delicacy of who, like Alexander the First, acts frame, and even pre-disposition to uniformly upon this principle, may disease, are, by the use of proper rest securely upon the affections of means (and of these warm covering his people. The short period of




his administration has been distin- tion, and talks of past circumstances guished already by the noblest ac in the most engaging manner. Even tions; as a proof of which we have those who are entire strangers to only to peruse his excellent edicts, him, however disagreeable their which are so full of humanity, affa- subjects of conversation, and at bility, clemency, and justice; and times highly improper and imper. especially his ordinance by which tinent, are frequently heard by him he has granted an unlimited free with the utmost composure, of which dom from informers and spies. He the two following are striking exwishes his people to be informed amples. and enlightened, and hates, there A young woman, of German exfore, every species of controul. He traction, waited once for the Emis persuaded indeed that a supreme peror on the stairs, by which he governor is as necessary to an en was accustomed to go down to the lightened nation, as it is to a people parade. When the monarch apin ignorance anderror; but he knows peared, she met him on the steps that the former will venerate its so- with these words in her mouth.... vereign with a thousand times more “ Please your Majesty, I have someaffection than the latter. He knows thing to say to you.” “ What is it?" that the best administration of a demanded the Emperor, and restate, can only advance in a parallel mained standing with all his atdirection with the best progress of tendants. “I wish to be married; sound reason. Let his imperial let- but I have no fortune; if you would ter be attentively perused, which he graciously give me a dowry....." lately wrote to one of his grandees, * Ah, my girl, (answered the monand which is one of the fairest jew- arch) were I to give dowries to all els of his crown. In what humane the young women in Petersburgh, and paternal language does he there where do you think I should find express himself on the degradation money?” The girl, however, by and slavish misery under which the is order, received a present of Russian peasantry for the most part fifty rubles. groan. He detests the idea of human On another occasion, at the very creatures being bought and sold in moment when the Emperor had the manner of cattle; and is en- given the word of command, and gaged seriously in making such ar- the guard on the parade was just on rangements as may set bounds to the point of paying him the usual such abuses for the future. To military honours, a fellow approachhimself, besides the occupation of ed him with ragged garments, with government, he allows so few plca- his hair in disorder, and a look of sures or amusements, that the Em- wildness, and gave him a slap on peror might be taken for a private on the shoulder. The monarch, person. Of the simplest appear who was standing at that time with ance, and generally clad in the his face opposite to the military strictest style of military uniform, front, turned round immediately, he is seen almost every day on the and, beholding the ragamufflı), startparade, and receives the petitions ed at the sight, and then asked him, of suppliants himself, or gives orders with a look of astonishment, what to his adjutant for that purpose. he wanted. “ I have something to With the greatest affability, and a say to you, Alexander Paulowitz," pleasing smile, he salutes every one answered the stranger, in the Rusa that comes in his way, and gives sian language. “ Say on then," audience to each of them himself. said the Emperor, with a smile of He then takes an airing on horse- encouragement, and laving his hands back, attended only by a single ser- upon the vagabond's shoulders. A vant; and when he meets with any long solemn pause followed; the of those persons whom he formerly military guird stood still; and noknew when Grand Duke, he enters body ventured by word or motion to immediately into familiar conversa- disturò the Einperor in this singular

• interview. The Grand Duke Con- good-natured Emperor informod,

stantine alone, whose attention had that this poor wretch had, upon been excited by the unusual stop. mere suspicion, been put to the page, advanced somewhat nearer, rack in the most inhuman manner; to his brother. The stranger now that he had given up the ghost in related, that he had been a captain the midst of torments, and asserted in the Russian service, and had his innocence with his last breath, been present at the campaigns both than he sent immediately an officer in Italy and Switzerland; but that to Casan, to investigate the matter he had been persecuted by his com to the bottom; and published at the manding officer, and so misrepre- same time that remarkable edict, sented to Suwarsow, that the latter in consequence of which, the term had him turned out of the army. torture is for ever blotted out from Without money and without friends, the legal language of Russia. in a foreign country, he had afierwards served as a private soldier in the Russian army; and being

MISCELLANEOUS EXTRACTS. wounded and mangled at Zurich A new flexible tube for the gazes (and here he puiled his rags asun- has been invented: it consists of a der, and showed several gun-shot brass wire, twisted round a long thin wounds) he had closed his campaign cylinder, and covered with ciled in a French prison. He had now silk, twice wrapped round, and, fasbegged all the way to Petersburg, tened, by means of thread, between to apply to the Emperor himself the grooves of the wire. It is then for justice, and to beg him to in- again varnished, and covered in a quire into the reason of such a spiral manner with sheep-gut, slit shameful degradation from his post. longitudinally, and again secured The Emperor heard him to the with thread. Lastly, to protect the end with patience; and then asked, whole from external injury, it is to in a significant tone, “ if there was be covered with leather in the same no exaggeration in the story he had manner as the tubes of inhalers. told ?" “Let me die under the These flexible tubes answer the kpout, (said the officer) if I shall same purpose as the ery costly be found to have uttered one word ones of elastic gum, similar to the of falshood!” The Emperor then hollow bougies made for surgeons. beckoned to his brother, and charged Mr. E. Walker, in his experihim to conduct the stranger to the ments on the quantity of light afpalace, while he turned about to the forded by candles, observes, that expecting crowd. The command. when a lighted candle is so placed, ing officer, who had behaved so as neither to require snuffing, or shamefully, though of a good family, produce smoke, it is reasonable to and a prince in rank, was repri. conclude, thatthe whole of the commanded very severely ; while the bustible matter which is consumed, brave warrior, whom he had un- is converted to the purpose of gejustly persecuted, was reinstated in nerating light; and that the intenhis former post, and had besides a sities of light, generated in a given considerable present from the Em- time by candles of different dimenperor.

sious, are directly as the quantities Every thing that savours of harsh. of matter consumed; that is to say, ness or cruelty is abhorent to the when candles are made of the same temper of this aimable Monarch: materials, if one produce twice as as an evidence of which we need much light as another, the former only mention the well-known story will, in the same time, lose twice as of the torture inficted on a poor much weight as the latter. The folRussian, who had fallen under the lowing general law Mr. Walker suspicion of having wilfully set fire states as the result of many experito buildings. No sooner was the ments; Where combustion is comFOL. I....NO. ?,


plete, the quantities of light pro- feeding stream of water, so that duced by taslow candles are in the each alternately act on the upper duplicate ratio of their times of and lower part of a piston, within burning and weights of matter con- a cylinder, as it were, reversing the sumed. For, by experiment, it is syphon at each change; and the found, that if their quantities of power is equal to a column of water matter be equal, and times of burn- of the same diameter as that of the ing be the same, they will give equal cylinder, and equal in length to the quantities of light; and, if the times height of the head above the tailof burning be equal, the quantities water. By this engine, it is said, of light will be directly their weights that a boy can raise or lower goods expended : therefore, the light is of any weight, without other exeruniversally in the compound ratio tion than that of merely turning a of the time of burning and weight cock to the stop-mark in the index. of matter consumed. Mr. Walker It raises and lowers goods with concludes, with observing, that it is thrice the velocity usually produced the sudden changes produced by by manual labour. The ingenious snuffing, and not the light itself, inventor has pointed out a variety that does so much injury to the eye of other purposes to which this disof the student and injury covery may be applieel. that may be easily prevented by lay It is said, from evidence arising ing aside the snuffers, and, in the from long experience, that straw or place of one large candle, to make loose twigs, scattered over any plant use of two

or bed of plants, preserve from frost It has been ascertained by Mr.W. better than a solid or close coverWilson, that the shavings of wood, ing; and that nets, three or four cut under certain circumstances, thick, hung on a wall before fruitare strongly electrical. From sun trees in blossom, preserves them dry experiments, it appears, that better than any substance that quite where very dry wood is scraped excludes the air in any direction. with a piece of, the It has been found, that bags steepshavings are always positively elec- ed in a solution of nitre will effectu. trified; and, if chipped with a knife, ally keep off the weavil, and other the chips are positively electrified, destructive insects, from corn durif the wood be hot, and the edge of ing the longest voyages. the knife not very sharp; but nega It is said, that olive-oil, gently tively electrified, if the wood be boiled for a considerable time, in a quite cold; if, however, the edge copper vessel newly tinned, is an of the knife is very keen, the chips effectual cure for cancers. The cil will be negatively electrified, whe- must be brought to the consistency ther the wood be hot or cold. Ifa of ointment, and then constantly a piece of dry and warm wood is rubbed on the part affected for two suddenly split asunder, the two sur or three weeks or longer. faces, which were contiguous, are A new and cheap polishing subelectrified, one side positive, and stance has been found out. It conthe other negative.

sists of pieces of old hat (which are Mr. John Harriott has invented dyed with iron) immersed for a a new engine for raising and lower- few minutes in sulphuric acid: the ing weights, and for other purposes, iron passes to the state of red oxide, by the action of a column of water. and they then become excelent The principle of this engine con- pieces for giving the last polish to sists in combining the power of the the hardest matters. syphon with the direct pressure of The following is recommended as a column or stream of water, so a simple and easy method of obthat they may act together. It taining water in almost any situada works by means of the syphon con- tion:-The ground is perforated stantly acting in concert with the by a borct. In the perforation is

placed a wonden pipe, which is pended by a riband. The appadriven down with a mallet, after ratus thus adjusted, I introduced a which the boring is continued, that watch into the end of the trumpet, the pipe may be driven still farther. and, applying my ear to the crossIn proportion as the cavity of the trumpet, I heard beats much louder borer becomes loaded, it is drawn than if the watch had been at the up and emptied, and in time, by the distance of a few inches only. The addition of new portions of wooden sound appeared to come out of the pipe, the boring is carried to any cross-trumpet, although the watch depth, and water is generally ob was at the distance of seventeen taincd.

feet and a half; airi, when it was The following are the antiquities laid into the cross-trumpet, it was which have been collected in the heard equally well at the end-trumexcavations at Herculaneum, and pet. Ex. 2. Mv assistant in these presented to the French govern- experiments being seated at one ment :-In gold, a bulla, a collar, a end of the trumpet, and myself at pair of bracelets, a pair of ear. the other, a conversation took place pendants, a ring with a stone (dia- through this apparatus, but in whismond), and a simple ring. In silver, pers too low to be lieard through a needle to hold the hair. In bronze, the air at that distance. When the a small statue of Hercules, another ear was placed in a certain position of Mercury, a Priapus, a Tripod, a the words were heard as if they had Patera, a Fræfericula, a gilt cup been spoken by an invisible being with two handles, a scal, two craters within the trumpet; and the sound with feet, six candle-sticks, four was more distinct, softer, and more lamps, a lamp-supporter, to which musical, than if they had been spofour lamps are suspended, a vessel ken through the air.” Mr. Walker for oil, a patera for perfumes, four infers from these experiments, that, currying combs to be used in the it a communication wsa made on baths, an oval vessel to throw water this principle between a shop or over the back, a casque, two pieces warehouse, and the dining-room, of armour for the defence of the &c. it might contribute to the dislegs, and part of the thighs, two patch of business; and instruments pieces of armour for the defence of might be formed on the same printhe lower part of the legs, an arm- ciple, and introcluced between the our for the defence of the shoulders, parlour and servants-hall, so that and a frying pan.

directions might be given to a doIt appears, from some experi- mestic without his entering the ments made by Mr. E. Walker, room, and in whispers too low to that acoustic instruments may be disturb the company. constructed, for conversing at a Captain Wilson, the genticman distance, without the assistance of who was wrecked at the Pelew Isla tubes to convey the sound. “Ex. 1. ands, is just returned from Cliina, I took a deal rod, sixteen feet long, and reports, that the Keys to the and about an inch square, and, after Chinese Language, lately publishhaving fixed one end of it into the ed in London by Dr. Hajor, bave small end of a speaking trumpet, I been presented to the gentleinen of laid it upon two props, in an hori- the English factory at Canton, and zontal position. One of the props to some of the Cluinese literati, and was placed under the trumpet, that the work has met with their about three inches from its wide complete approbation. Several perend, and the other prop was placed sons, and among them a son or Capnear the cthier end of the rod : tam Wilson, have been induced, by another speaking trumpet was then the aid of this introduction, to com. laid across the rod, about three mence the study of the Chinese inches from the end. The widle Language. Dr. Hager is now at part of this trumpet rested up in Paris, preparing for publication a the rod, but the other end was sus Chinese and French Dictionary, un

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