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story is, of course, the hottest. a very frightful appearance. In Men and women use the bath pro- the winter season they frequently miscuously, without any conceal- go out of the bath, naked as they ment of dress, or being the least are, to roll themselves in the snow, influenced by any emotions of at- when the cold is at 20 and even 30 tachment. If, however, a stranger degrees below zero. They someopen the door, and come on the times come out, still naked, and bathers by surprize, the women converse together, or with any one are not a little startled at his ap- near them, in the open air: Iftrapearance; for, besides his person, vellers happen to pass by while the he introduces along with him, by peasants of any hamlet, or little opening the door, a great quantity village, are in the bath, and their of light, which discovers at once assistance is needed, they will leave to the view their situation, as well the bath, and assist in yoking or as forms. Without such an acci- unyoking, and fetching provender dent they remain, if not in total for the horses, or any thing else, darkness, yet in great obscurity, as without any sort of covering whatthere is no other window besides a ever, while the passengersits shiversmall hole, nor any light but what ing with cold, though wrapped enters in frorn some chink in the in a good sound wolf's skin. There roof of the house, or the crevices is nothing more wonderful than the between the pieces of wood of extremities which man is capable of which it is constructed. I often enduring through the power of habit. amused myself with surprising the The Finnish peasants pass thus bathers in this manner, and I once instantaneously from an atmosphere or twice tried to go in and join the of 70 degrees of heat, to one of 30 assembly; but the heat was so ex- degrees of cold, a transtion of a cessive that I could not breathe, hundred degrees, which is the same and in the space of a minute at thing as going out of boiling into most, I verily believe, must have freezing water! and, what is more been suffocated. I sometimes step- astonishing, without the least inped in for a moment, just to leave convenience; while other people my thermometer in some proper are wery sensibly effected by a vaplace, and immediately went out riation of but five degrees, and in again, where I would remain for a danger of being afflicted with rheuquarter of an hour, or ten minutes, matism by the most trifling wind and then enter again, and fetch the that blows. Those peasants assure instrument to ascertain the degree you, that without the hot vapour of heat. My astonishment was so baths they could not sustain as they great that I could scarcely believe my do, during the wlzole day, their vasenses, when I found that those rious labours. By the bath, they people remain together, and amuse tell you, their strength is recruited themselves for the space of half an as much as by rest and sleep. The hour, and sometimes a whole hour, heat of the vapour mollifies to in the same chamber, heated to the such a degree their skin, that the 70th or 75th degree of Celsius. men easily shave themselves with The thermometer in contact with wretched razors, and without soap. those vapours, became sometimes so hot, that I could scarcely hold it in my hands.

NATURE OR THUNDER BY EULER. The Finlanders, all the while they are in this hot bath, continue LET a bar of metal, say of iron, to rub themselves, and lash every be placed on a pillar of glass, or part of their bodies with switches any other substance whose pores formed of twigs of the birch-tree. In ten minutes they become as red * I speak alivays of the thermomeas raw flesh, and have altogether a ter of a hundred degrees, by Celsius

are close, that when the bar near the wire; but happening careacquires electricity it may not lessly to advance his chest a little, cscape or communicate itself to the he received a terrible stroke, body which supports the bar; as accompanied with a loud clap, soon as a thunder-storm arises, and which stretched him lifeless on the the clouds which contain the thun, floor. der come directly over the bar, About the same time, the late you perceive in it a very strong Dr. Lieberkuhn and Dr. Ludolf electricity, generally far surpassing were about making similar experithat which art produces, if you ments, and in that view had fixed apply the hand to it, or any other bars of iron on their houses; but body with open pores, you see being informed of the disaster bursting from it, not only a spark which had befallen Mr. Richmann, but a very bright flash, with a noise they had the bars of iron immesimilar to thunder; the man, who diately removed, and, in my opiapplies his hand to it, receives a nion, they acted wisely. shock so violent that he is stunned. From this you will readily judge, This surpasses

curiosity, and there that the air or atmosphere must is good reason why we should be on become very electric during a our guard, and not approach the thunder-storm, or that the ether bar' during a storm.

contained in it must then be carried A professor at Petersburgh, to a very high degree of compresnamed Richmann, has furnished sion. This ether, with which the a melancholy example. Having air is surcharged, will pass into the perceived a resemblance so strik- bar, because of its open pores, and ing between the phenomena of it will become electric, as it would thunder and those of electricity, have been in the common method, this unde ortunate naturalist, the but in a much higher degree.” Mr. more clearly to ascertain it by E. concludes his explanation of the experiment, raised a bar of iron on phenomena of thunder and lightning the roof of his house, cased below with these observations in letter 38, in a tube of plass, and supported by and then proceeds to state the a mass of pitch. To the bar he possibility of preventing and of attached a wire, which he conduct. averting the effects of thunder in ed into his chamber, that as soon letter 39. as the bar should become electric, Thunder then is nothing else but the electrcity might have a free the effect of the electricity with communication with the wire, and which the colours are endowed; so enable him to prove the effects and as an electrified body, applied in his apartment. And it may to another in its natural state, emits be proper to inform you, that a spark with some noise, and disthis wire was con ducted in such a charges into it the superfluous ether, manner as no where to be in con- with prodigious impetuosity; the tact but with bodi es whose pores same thing takes place in a cloud are close, such as glass, pitch, or that is electric, or surcharged with silk, to prevent the escape of ether, but with a force incompaelectricity.

rably greater, because of the terri. Having made this : arrangement, ble mass that is electrified, and in he expected a thunder-storm, which, according to every appear. which, unhappily for him, soon ance, the ether is reduced to a much came. The thunder w as heard at higher degree of compression than a distance; Mr. Richm ann was all we are capable of carrying it by attention to his wire, to see if he our machinery. could perceive any ma ik of elec When, therefore, such a cloud tricity. As the storm aj proached, approaches bodies, prepared for he judged it prudent to employ the admission of its ether, this some precaution, and not keep too discharge must be made with in

credible violence: instead of a been struck by it; and that those simple spark, the air will be pene. who were in the middle suffered no trated with a prodigious fash, injury. The cause of this phenowhich, exciting a commotion in the menon likewise is manifest. In a ether contained in the whole adjoin- group exposed to a thunder-storm, ing region of the atmosphere, pro- they are in the greatest danger duces a most brilliant light; and in who stand in the nearest vicinity to this lightning consists.

the air that is surcharged with The air is, at the same time, put ether; as soon as the ether is disinto a very violent motion of vibra- charged upon one, all the adjoining tion, from which results the noise air is brought back to its natural of thunder. This noise must, no state, and consequently those who doubt, be excited at the same were nearest to the unfortunate

instant with the lightning; but you victim feel no effect, while others, • know that sound always requires a at a greater distance, where the certain quantity of time, in order air is still sufficiently surcharged to its transmission to any distance, with ether, are struck with the and that its progress is only at the same thunder-clap. rate of about a thousand feet in a In a word, all the strange cirsecond; whereas light travels with cumstances, sofrequently relata velocity inconceivably greater. ed, of the effects of thunder, Hence we always hear the thunder contain nothing which may not be later than we see the lightning: and easily reconciled with the nature from the number of seconds inter- of electricity, vening between the flash and the Some philosophers have mainreport, we are enabled to deter- tained, that thunder did not come mine the distance of the place where from the clouds, but from the earth, it is generated, allowing a thousand or bodies. However extravagant feet to a second.

this sentiment may appear, it is not The body itself, into which the so absurd, as it is difficult to distinelectricity of the cloud is discharg- guish, in the phenomena of electried, receives from it a most dreadful city, whether the spark issues from stroke; sometimes it is shivered to the body which is electrified, or pieces; sometimes set on fire and from that which is not so, as it consumed, if combustible; some- equally fills the space between the tlmes melted, if it be of metal; and, two bodies; and if the electricity is in such cases, we say it is thunder- negative, the ether and the spark struck; the effects of which, howe are in effect emitted from the natuver surprising and extroardinary ral or non-electrified body. But they may appear, are in perfect we are sufficiently assured that, in consistency with the well-known thunder, the clouds have a positive phenomena of electricity.

electricity, and that the lightning is A sword, it is known, has some emitted from the clouds. times been by thunder melted in the • You will by justifiable, however, scabbard, while the last sustained no in asking, if by every stroke of injury; this is to be accounted for thunder some terrestrial body is from the openness of the pores of the affected? We see, in fact, that it metal, which the ether very easily very rarely strikes buildings, or the penetrates, and exercises overit ail human body; but we know, at the its powers, whereas the substance of same time, that trees are frequentthe scabbard is more closely allied ly affected by it, and that many to the nature of bodies with close thunder-strokes are discharged inpores, which permit not to the to the earth and into the water. I ether so free a transmission. believe, however, it might be main

It has likewise been found, that tained, that a great many do not of several persons, on whom the descend so low, and that the elec. thunder has fallen, some only have tricity of the clouds is very fre


quently discharged into the air or genius and originality. The use atmosphere.

of heroic verse, for rendering the The small opening of the pores work of a mannerist, is like adding of the air no longer opposes any to wine milk, which turns hock or obstruction to it, when vapours or sherris into the same undistinguishrain have rendered it sufficiently able posset. How much more of humid; for then, we know, the variety there is in the Homer of pores open.

Cowper, or in the Tasso of Fairfax, It may very possibly happen, in than in the couplets of Pope, and this case, that the superfluous ether Hoole. Had Macpherson versifiof the clouds should be discharged ed all Ossian, like the specimen in simply into the air; and when this his preface, would he have detaintakes place, the strokes are neither ed to the end our attention so deso violent, nor accompanied with so lightfully? To a majestic simplicity great a noise, as when the thunder of style, to the sublime of thought bursts on the earth, when a much only, heroic verse seems peculiargreater extent of atmosphere is put ly fatal....consult the rhyme book in agitation.

of Job.... it is more insufferable than the Alexandrines of a French tragedy.

The very metre employed in the CRITICISM ON KLOPSTOCK'S original Messiah is no less adapta

ble to the other Gothic dialacts

than the German. In all of them A COMPLETE translation of Klop- stress makes quantity. An emstock's. Messiah into English is de. phatic syllable is long; an unemvoutly to be wished. It may pro- phatic syllable, short. The scanbably be expected from the land of ner has to consider neither the arSir 'HEABERT Croft. He pro- ticulation of the vowels, nor the jects a prose-translation line for position of the consonants; two line, and has enjoyed so much of accented syllables form his sponthe author's acquaintance as occa- dees; one accented and two unacsionally to have consulted him about cented, his dactyls. With such the meaning of those obscurer feet Klopstock composes Hexamepassages, which even Germans in- ters, carefully putting a dactyl in terpret with faultering. Such a the fifth place, unless a peculiar version would not however preclude heaviness of cadence is requisite; the wish for a metrical, polished, and indulging frequently in the liand less anxiously verbal transla. centious substitution of trochees to tion: but I cannot in recommend- spondees, not only the sixth place, ing to the future translator, the as was common among the anciadoption of five-foot couplets, or ents, but in any other. This form heroic verse, as our most customa- of line is usually fluent to rapidity: ry metre is called. So much En- it invites and favours a frequent use glish poetry has been written, since of compound words, which abound Dryden, in this form, that all pos- in Klopstock, and which, like every sible structures of line are familar, peculiarity of a great master of and all sources of variation ex- song, ought in a version carefully hausted; every cadence is an echo, to be retained. Such compounds, every pause expected, every rhyme especially when they consist of two foreseen. It bestows therefore, monosyllables, would read harsh in even on novelty of thought, a flat English, is rhynied, or even in featureless mein, an insipid treacly blank verse; and would appear to sameness, a terse quotidian trivi- clog the iambic step with spondaic ality, very unfavcurable to impres- ponderosity. Hexameter is theresion, and wholly impervious to pe- fcre better adapted than the metres culiar and characteristic sallies of in use to transfer with faithfulness

carcases totter

the manner of this writer. Take affected or quaint at first, but with the passage already produced in each successive act of attention this rhyme, as a specimen.

impression by its very nature dimi

nishes; it arising solely from want So at the midnight hour draws nigh to of habit. When the latent utility the slumbering city

and adequate purpose of innovation Pestilence. Couch'd on his broad.

comes at length to be discerned, spread wings lurks under the ram. the peculiarity commonly affords an part,

additional zest. The employment Death, bale-breathing. As yet unalarmed are the peaceable dwellers; neral law. Use would render their

of hexameters would obey this geClose to his r.ghtly-lamp the sage yet cadence soothing. All supposed

watches; and high friends Over wine not unhallow'd, in shelter association between metre and mat. of odorous bowers,

ter is in a great degree arbitrary, Talk of the soul and of friendship, and is commonly accidental. The

and weigh their immortal duration. first classical and popular work But too soon shall frightful Death, in produced in a given measure dea day of affliction,

cides the reputedly appropriate exPouncing, over them spread; in a pression of that measure. Double

day of moaning and anguish.... rhymes, which are thought to have When with wringing of hands the a ludicrous effect in English, are

bride for the bridegroom loud wails; in every other modern language When, now of all her chlidren bereft, essential for sublime composition.

the desperate mother Furious curses the day on which she sed for elegiac, if Shenstone, Beat,

Anapæstic metre would have pasbore, and was born....when Weary with hollower eye, amid the not been interrupted in the use of it

tie, and the plaintive poets, had Even the buriers....till the sent Death by the author of the election-ball. Il angel, descending,

Penseroso and Hudibras scan alike: Thoughtful, on thunder-clouds, be- and hexameters may again, as of

holds all lonesome and silent, old, serve both for an Iliad and a Gazes the wide desolation, and long Margites. In short, the matter not broods over the graves, fixt. the form, constitutes the essence

of a work of literary art; and Perhaps some other writer will where the matter is fine, the form throw this fine picture into blank will soon be supposed to have con

so well, as to convince tributed to its spirit, and to its the public, that the beauties of beauty. The adoption of hexameKlopstock can be naturalized with. ter would afford that sort of delight out strangeness, and his peculiari- which arises from the contemplaties retained without affectation; tion of difficulty overcome. It that quaintness, the unavoidable would necessarily introduce many companion of neologism, is as need- novelties of style; and variety is less to genius, as hostile to grace; the grand recipe of gratification. the hexameter, until it is familiar, It would banish, from metrical reamust repel, and, when it is fami- sons, half the established phrases liar, may annoy; that it wants a and hacknied combinations of the musical orderliness of sound; and rhymer's dictionary. It would that its cantering capricious move arouse the industry of the composment opposes the grave march of ers, who, not finding a ready made solemn majesty, and better suits acquaintance of substantives and the ordinary scenery of Theocritus epithets well paired and rythmicalthan the empyreal visions of Klop- ly drilled, would have to contrive stock.

fresh unions, and would often acYet these considerations can all complish happier matches. While be enfeebled. The unusual in metre, some withering words would drop as in style, must appear strange, from the foliaceous tree of our lanTOL. I....NO. VI.



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