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the peculiar Words of every Profession ; that the Terms of War and Navigation should be inserted, To far as they can be required by Readers of Travels,
1 posed useful in the Occurrences of common Life.
But there ought, however, to be some Distinction made between the different Classes of Words; and therefore it will be proper to print those which are incorporated into the Language in the usual Character, and those which are still to be considered as foreign, in the Italick Letter.
Another Question may arise with regard to Appellatives, or the Names of Species. It seems of no great Use to let down, the Words Horse, Dog, Cat, Willow, Alder, Dasy, Rose, and a thousand others, of which' it will be hard to give an Explana- , tion, not more obscure than the Word itself. Yet it is to be considered, that, if the Names of Animals be inserted, we must admit those which are more known, as well as those with which we are, by Accident, less acquainted; and if they are all rejected, how will the Reader be relieved from Difficulties produced by Allusions to the Crocodile, the Camæleon, the Ichneumon, and the Hyæna ? If no Plants are to be mentioned, the moft pleasing Part of Nature will be excluded, and many beautiful Epithets be unexplained. If only those which are less known are to be mentioned, who shall fix the limits of the Reader's Learning ? The Importance of such Explications appears from the Mistakes which the Want of them has occafioned. Had Shakespeare had a Dictionary of this Kind, he had not made the Woodbine entwine the Honeysuckle ; nor would Milton, with such Allistance, have disposed so improperly of his Ellops and his Scorpion
Besides, as such Words, like others, require that their Accents should be settled, their Sounds ascer
tained, and their Etymologies deduced, they cannot be properly omitted in the Dictionary. And though. the Explanations of some may be censured as trivial because they are almost universally understood, and those of others as unneceffary, because they will sel. dom occur, yet it seems not proper to omit them, since it is rather to be wished that many Readers should find more than they expect, than that one should miss what he might hope to find.
When all the Words are selected and arranged, the first part of the Work to be considered is the Orthography, which was long vague and uncertain ; which at lait, when its Fluctuation ceased, was in many Cases settled but by. Accident; and in which according to your Lordfhip's Observation, there is still great Uncertainty among the best Critics : Nor is it easy to state a Rule by which we may decide between Custom and Reason, or between the equi. ponderant Authorities of Writers alike eminent for Judgment and Accuracy.
Thegreat orthographical Contest haš long fubfifted between Etymology and Pronunciation. It has been demanded, on one Hand, that Men should write as they speak; but, as it has been shewn that this Conformity never was attained in any Language, and that it is not more easy to persuade Men to agree exactly in speaking than in writing, it may be asked, with equal Propriety, why Men do not rather speak as they write: In France, where this Controversy was at its greateft Height, neither Party, however ardent, durft adhere steadily to their own Rule; the Etymologist was often forced to spell with the People ; and the Advocate for the Authority of Pronun-ciation found it sometimes deviating fo capriciously from the received Use of Writing, that he was constrained to comply with the Rule of his Adversaries, left.he should lose the End by the Means, and be left alone by following the Crowd.
When a Question of Orthography is dubious, that Practice has, in my Opinion, a Claim to Preference which preserves the greatest Number of radical Let'ters, or seems most to comply with the general Cuftom of our Language. But the chief Rule which I propose to follow is, to make no Innovation, without a Reason sufficient to balance the Inconvenience of Change; and such Reasons I do not expect often to find. All Change is of itself an Evil, which ought not be hazarded but for evident Advantage ; and as Inconftancy is in every Case a Mark of Weakness, it will add nothing to the Reputation of our Tongue. There are, indeed, some who despise the Inconveniences of Confusion, who seem to take Pleasure in departing from Cuftom, and to think Alteration desirable for its own Sake, and the Reformation of our Orthography, which these Writers have attemptedy should not pass without its due Honours, but that I suppose they hold a Singularity its own Reward, or may dread the Fascination of lavish Praise.
The present Usage of Spelling, where the present Usage can be diftinguished, will therefore, in this Work, be generally followed yet there will be often Occasion to obferve, that it is in itself inaccurate, and tolerated rather than chosen ; particularly when, by a Change of one Letter, or more, the Meaning of a Word is obfcured; as in Farrier, or Ferrier, as it was formerly written, from Ferrum, .or Fer; in Gibberis, for Gebrish, the Jargon of Geber, and his chymical Followers, understood by none but their own Tribe. It will be likewise sometimes proper to trace back the Orthography of different Ages, and Thew by what Gradations.the Word departed from its Original.
Closely connected with Orthography. is Pronunciation, the Stability of which is of great Importance to the Duration of a Language, because the firft Change will naturally begin by Corruptions in
the living Speech. The Want of certain Rules for the Pronunciation of former Ages, has made us wholly ignorant of the metrical Art of our ancient Poets; and since those who study their Sentiments regret the Loss of their Numbers, it is surely Time to provide that the Harmony of the Moderns may be more permanent.
A new Pronunciation will make almost a new Speech; and therefore, since one great End of this Undertaking is to fix the English Language, Care will be taken to determine the Accentuation of all Polyfyllables by proper Authorities, as it is one of those capricious Phänomena which cannot be easily reduced to Rules.' Thus there is no antecedent Reason for Difference of Accent in the Words dolorous and Sonorous ; 'yet of the one Milton gives the Sound in this Line :
He pass d o'er many a Region dolorous, and that of the other in this,
Sonorous Metal blowing martial Sounds. It may likewise be proper to remark metrical Licenses, such as Contractions, generous, gen'rous ; res verend, rev’rend; and Coalitions, as Region, Queftion.
But it is still more necessary to fix the Pronunciation of Monofyllables, by placing with them Words of correspondent Sound, that one may guard the other against the Danger of that Variation, which, to some of the moft common, has already happened ; fo that the Words Wound and Wind, as they are now frequently pronounced, will not rhyme to Sound and Mind. It is to be remarked, that many Words written alike are differently pronounced, as Flow, and Brow; which may be thus registered, Flow, Woe, Brow, now; or of which the Exemplification may be generally given by a Distich: Thus the Words tear, or lacerate, and Tear, the Water of the Eye, have the same Letters, but may be distinguished thus, tear, dare ; Tear, Peer.
Some Words have two Sounds, which may be equally admitted, as being equally defensible by Authority. Thus great is differently used.
For Swift and him defpis'd the Farce of State,
And none could be unhappy but the Great. Rowe, The Care of such minute Particulars may be censured as trifling; but these Particulars have not been thought unworthy of Attention in more polished Languages.
The Accuracy of the French, in stating the Sounds of their Letters, is well known; and, among the Italians, Crefcembeni has not thought it unnecessary to inform his Countrymen of the Words which, in Compliance with different Rhymes, are allowed to be differently spelt, and of which the Number is now so fixed, that no modern Poet is fuffered to encrease it.
When the Orthography and Pronunciation are adjusted, the Etymology or Derivation is next to be .considered, and the Words are to be distinguished according to their different Claffes, whether simple, as Day, Light, or compound, as Day-light; whether primitive, as, to act, or rlerivative, as Action, actionable, active, Ativity. This will much facilitate the Attainment of our Language, which now stands in our Dictionaries a confused Heap of Words without Dependence, and without Relation.
When this Part of the Work is performed, it will be necessary to enquire how our Primitives are to be deduced from foreign Languages, which may be often very successfully performed by the Affiftance of our own Etymologists. This Search will give Oc