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STRAHAN, WILLIAM, his queries re-
specting American affairs, and Frank-
lin's answers; his character and rank,
IV. 258. His objections to Colden's
new method of printing, VI. 29. No-
tice of, VII. 156. His character of
Franklin, addressed to Mrs Franklin,
156. Proposes to Franklin to settle
in England, 195. Ironical letter to,
VIII. 155 Urges Franklin to visit
England, X. 65.
STUART, observations on his drawings
of waterspouts, VI. 139.
STUBER, HENRY, his account of Frank-
lin's early electrical discoveries, V.
173. Continues the Memoirs of
Franklin, 404.

SUFFOLK, Lord, his views respecting
peace with America, VIII. 247.
Sugar Act, its character, and the hos
tility of the colonists to it, IV. 169.
Sugar Islands, A Thought concerning
the, 11. 419.

SULLIVAN, JOHN, his agency in regard
to the conference between the Com-
mittee of Congress and the British
Commissioners, V. 97, 104.
Sulphur, difference in the electricity of
a globe of glass charged and one of,
V. 273. Probable cause of the dif
ference, 275. Reasons for believing
that the globe of, charges negatively,


Sun, hypothesis respecting spots in the,
VI. 369.

Supplement to the Boston Independent
Chronicle, account of a, V. 125.
Supplemental Treaty, David Hartley's,
mentioned, IX. 505.

Surinam Eel. See Torpedo.
Susquehanna Indians, anecdote relating
to the, II. 456.

Sweden, of a treaty between the United
States and, IX. 342. Full powers ex-
changed by the ambassador of, with
Dr. Franklin, 460. Conclusion of the
treaty, 495. Ratifications exchanged,
524. Project of a treaty with, 543.
Its progress, X. 29. King of, visits
Paris, 440.
Swimming, Franklin's skill in, I. 63.
Remarks on the art of, VI. 286. How
to acquire it. 287. Ease with which it
may be acquired, 288. Its importance,
290. Different modes of, 291. By
means of a kite, 293.
Swiss Cantons, their political condition,
X. 342.


Tallow Tree, Chinese, mentioned, VIII.

Tariff Laws, remarks on, VI. 82.
Taxes, of the voice of the people in
choosing the rulers who impose, III.
57. On the imposition of direct, on
the colonies without their consent, 58.
Distinction between external and in-
ternal, IV. 174. Suggestion in regard
to, X. 45. In the United States, 323.
Tea, effect of the non-repeal of the duty
on. IV 383. Increase of smuggling,
and diminution of receipts from duties
on, 385. Arrival of the, in Boston, in
1773, 506. Franklin assents to pay-
ment for the, as a basis of compromise,
V. 14. Duty on, continued by Eng
land as a matter of national pride,
VIII. 24. Repeal of the duty con-
sidered by Parliament, 35. Views in
England on the subject, 48. Project
to avoid the repeal, 86, 96. That the
Americans ought not to pay for that
which was destroyed, 130.
TEEDYUSCUNG, an Indian chief, his
conference with the whites at Easton,
VII. 125.

Telescope, newly invented, VIII. 433.
Temperance, signs of, VI. 391.
TEMPLE, JOHN, his duel with Mr.
Whately, in consequence of the pub-
lication of the Hutchinson Letters,
IV. 434; his agency in procuring
them, 443. Again, VIII. 100, 102.
Tender, suggestion for emitting money
with a legal, VII. 398.
TENGNAGEL, his account of the preser-
vation of a Dutch ship, by pouring oil
on the waves, VI. 364.
TENNENT, GILBERT, Franklin's advice
to, I. 167.

Tests, their inexpediency, VIII. 505.
Theory of the Earth, Franklin's, VI. 443.
Thermometer, construction of the elec-
trical air, V. 371. Remarks on the,
389. Some experiments with the,
described, VI. 261. Mode of reducing
the graduation of Fahrenheit's to
Réaumur's, and the reverse, VII. 52.
Thermometrical Observations recom.
mended, VI. 260.

Thirst, mode of relieving, at sea, VI.

THOMAS, GEORGE, Governor of Penn-
sylvania, remarks on the proceedings
of, IV. 103.

Thought concerning the Sugar Islands,

II. 419.

Thoughts concerning Executive Justice,
II. 478; X. 293.

Thunder gusts, Observations and Sup-
positions towards forming a new Hy.
pothesis for explaining the Phenomena
of, V. 211. Most dangerous situation
during. 220. Not often experienced
at sea far from land, and why, 222.

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France, concluded, VIII. 239. With
Great Britain, proposed, IX. 496; its
progress, X. 18, 20; its delay, 112,
307. With Morocco, IX. 530; X. 16,
31, 34, 35. With Portugal, IX. 524,
537; its progress, X. 29. With Swe-
den, IX. 342, 383, 443; powers ex-
changed, 460; concluded and ratified,
495, 524; X. 29.

Treaty of Peace. See Peace.
TRENCK, Baron, a statement of denied
by Franklin, X. 411.

Truce between Great Britain and the
United States proposed, VIII. 332.
Franklin's views on the subject, 345.
True State of the Proceedings in the
Parliament of Great Britain and the
Province of Massachusetts Bay, rela-
tive to the Giving and Granting the
Money of the People of that Province
and all America, in the House of Com
mons, where they are not represented,
IV. 466.

TOWNSHEND, CHARLES, his plan for
raising a revenue in America, IV.
247. His claim of credit for suggest
ing this plan, VII. 339.
TOWNSHEND, THOMAS, is appointed
Secretary of State for Foreign Af
fairs, IX. 371.

Trade, note respecting, II. 366. Its
principles stated, 383. Definition,
true end, and best support of, 385.
More benefited by industry than by
On the interference of
money, 392.
governments with, 401. Notions con-
cerning, 418. Necessity of restrict-
ing, in the United States, in 1788,
X. 337.

Tradesman, Franklin's advice to a
young, II. 87.
Trade-wind, suggestions respecting the
cause of the, VI. 133. Todd's objec-
tion to Franklin's views, 174. Frank-
lin's reply, 176.
Transit of Mercury, preparations for
observing the, VI. 159. Distribution
of letters relating to the, 160.
Transit of Venus, observations on the
expected, V. 421. Concerning some
observations of the, VII. 455.
Traveller, humorous letter of, in regard
to newspapers, VII. 287.
Treaty of Alliance concluded between
the United States and France, pro-
visions of the, VIII. 239.
Treaty of Commerce with Austria, re-
specting a, IX. 543; X. 118, 142.
With Bavaria, IX. 542. With Den-
mark, 487, 510, 512; its progress,
524, 529, 537, 542; X. 29. With

TRUXTUN, Commodore, his machine for
stopping the motion of vessels, VI.
484. His naval services, X. 217.
TUCKER, JOSIAH, his plan for protecting
the colonies from the Indians, III. 48
His views exposed, relative to the
Indian war, IV. 215; to the taxing
power of Parliament, 216; and on
the policy of Great Britain in regard
to colonial commerce, 225. General
views of his character and writings;
his plan for separating the colonies
from the mother country, 516. At-
tacks Franklin, who demands an ex-
planation, 519. Repeats the charge
of Franklin's applying for a place un-
der the Stamp Act, 521. His disin-
genuous conduct, 525. His zealous
hostility to Franklin, VII. 366.
TURGOT, his application of a Latin
verse to Franklin, VIII. 537. A let-
ter of, mentioned, X. 105.
Turin, present by the Academy of,
VIII. 188.


TURINI, PIETRO, Communicates
Franklin his work on electrical con-
ductors, VI. 424.

Turkey, of the proposed conquest of,
X. 329, 334.

Turkey, killed by electricity, V. 346.
Recommended as the representative
of America, X. 63.

Turks, mode of visiting among the,
II. 28. Their treatment of captives,
IV. 65.

Twyford, visit of Franklin to, VII.
TYTLER, his remarks on Franklin's
letter relating to old Scotch tunes.
VI. 268. His account of Lord Kames's

views on the subject of a consolidat-
ing union between Britain and the
colonies, VII. 334.

stitution of the, 299. Of public credit
in the, 335. See Peace.
University of Pennsylvania, their ad-
dress to Franklin on his return from
France, V. 140.


Union of the Colonies, papers relating
to the plan of, III. 22.

United States, remarks on the paper
money of the, II. 421. Comparison
of, with Great Britain, in regard to the
basis of credit, 426. Rate of wages
in the, 440. Their general condition
at the close of the revolutionary war,
461. Their agriculture, 462. Their
fisheries, 463. Trade, 464. Of par-
ties in the, 465. Erroneous notions
prevailing in Europe in regard to the,
467. Mediocrity of the general con-
dition in the, 468. To whom there
might be advantage in emigration to
the, 470. Of manufactures in the,
474. Article respecting privateering,
in their treaty with Prussia, 486. Views
respecting the Constitution of the, V.
155. Treaty of alliance concluded
between France and the, VIII. 239.
Condition of their finances in 1779,
308. Their alliance with France an
obstacle to peace with Great Britain,
312. Objections to their quitting the
alliance, 317. Rapid growth of the,
323. Excessive purchase of superflu.
ities in the, 327. Depreciation of
their currency in 1779, 329. State of
their financial affairs in France, 355.
Of dissensions in the, 370. Of a cop-
per coinage for the, 383. Importation
of superluities in the, 403. Will
not treat without their allies, 413.
Mr. Jebb's proposal of their federal
union with Great Britain. 508. Dis-
tressed state of their affairs in 1780,
535. Additional loan by France to
the, IX. 1. Of supplies in France
for the, 32. Feeling entertained in
the, towards France, 104. Of their
claim as far west as the Mississippi,
12); and to fish on the banks of
Newfoundland, 135. Policy of Great
Britain to separate France and the,
189. Condition of their affairs in
1782, 222. Their credit injured by
soliciting foreign alliances, 285. Rea-
sons why they should treat without
any of their allies but France, 306.
Their financial embarrassment early
in 1783, 464. Intelligence of the peo-
ple of the, X. 2. Difficulty of meet-
ing their drafts, 43. Of luxury in the,
113. Their tranquillity in 1784, 124,
155. Their condition in 1785, 235.
In 1786, 250, 253, 276. In 1787, 294.
Attempts to disparage the, 298. Con-


Value, labor the best measure of, 11.
265. Of agricultural labor as a meas-
ure, VII. 435.

Vanity, extract from an essay on hiu-
man, II. 179.
VAUGHAN, BENJAMIN, his vindication
of Franklin in reference to the Hutch-
inson letters, IV. 446, 450. His edi.
tion of Franklin's writings, VIII. 404.
His views on the subject of reconcil-
iation, IX. 433. Urges Dr. Franklin
to write a memoir of his life, 478.
Vegetation, on the cooling of, by evap
oration, VI. 216.
Its effect on nox-
ious air, 414.
Ventilation, remarks on, VI 307. Me-
phitic quality communicated to the
air by respiration, 308. Utility of
chimneys for, 309. Dr. Hales's sug
gestion respecting, 310. Franklin's
inode of, 311 Dr. Armstrong's view
of its importance, 314. Defect of
hospitals in this respect, 315. Influ-
ence of trees in, 322.
Venus, remarks on the expected transit
of, V. 420. On some observations of
the transit, VII. 455.
VEOME, Count del, introduced to Mr.
Livingston, IX. 519.
VERGENNES, Count de, interview of
the American commissioners with,
VIII. 194. His desire that the ap-
pointment of M. Gérard should be
concealed from Arthur Lee, 260.
Franklin's account to, of conversa-
tions with Mr. Hartley and Mr. Chap-
man, 268. Expresses his satisfac-
tion with the account, 271. His dis-
satisfaction with Mr. Adams, 44.
His comment on the resolution of
Congress ordering drafts on Franklin,
515. Interviews of Franklin with, IX.
76. Mr. Oswald recommended to.
243. His interview with Oswald and
Franklin, 245. Demands that the
first proposition to treat should come
from England, 248. Conversation with
Mr. Grenville, 273. Insists that no aid
was given by France to the United
States, till their independence was de-
clared, 274. Communicates to Franklin
the fact, that Mr. Grenville's cominis-
sion relates to France only, 299. His
view of the mission of Mr. Walpole,
329. Is satisfied with Mr. Grenville's
powers to treat, 335; but doub's his

good faith, 338. Doubts the sincerity
of the British ministry in proposing
the negotiation, 373. Complains of
the signature of the treaty with Great
Britain by the American commission-
ers without communication with the
French court, 449. His communica-
tion to M. de la Luzerne on the sub-
ject, and his opinion of the treaty, 453.
His comment on the intercepted let-
ter of M. de Marbois, 463. Refuses
to sign the definitive treaty with
England until that of the United
States is signed, X. 17. His expres-
sions of regret at Franklin's departure
from France, 171.

Vermont, disturbances in New Hamp
shire and, IX. 162.
VERNON, CHARLES, his account of the
treatment of Mr. Laurens in the Tow-
er, VIII. 516.

Versailles, visit of Franklin to, VII. 361.
Vessels, on the form of least resistance,
VI. 463. On the means of diminish-
ing the resistance of the air by a new
arrangement of the sails, 465. On the
construction of the cables of, 468.
Means of preserving, from overset-
ting, 472. Construction of double,
473. Of accidents by fire, lightning,
and collision, 475. And from ice,
476. Of the Indian and Chinese, 477.
Various moving powers, 478. Of a
swimming anchor, 481. Of machines
for stopping the motion of, 482. Ef-
fect of currents on the motion of, 485.
Health of the crews of, 489.
VICQ D'AZYR, FELIX, some account of,
VI. 433.

VI. 87. Baxter's doctrine on the sub.
ject examined, and its existence de-
nied, 88. Subject again referred to, 93
Visits, how to be regulated, II. 27.
Turkish mode of making, 28.
Volcanic Action in Italy, VI. 373.
VOLTA, an electrical experiment by,
V. 476.

Vienna, visit of Franklin to, suggest-
ed, IX. 501.

Vindication and Offer from Congress
to Parliament, circumstances that pro-
duced the work, V. 83.
Virginia, conduct of the British army
in, during the revolutionary war, II.
503. Views of the commissioners of,
relative to lands south of the Great
Kenhawa, IV. 332. View of the
House of Burgesses of, relative to
colonization in the interior, 365. In-
quiry how far the jurisdiction of, can
be extended to the Ohio, 372. Reso-
lutions of, respecting a Congress, VII.
295. Her resolutions on the subject
of a Committee of Correspondence,
VIII. 54. Respecting supplies ob-
tained in Europe for, 320.
Virtue, its character and effect delin-
eated, II. 19. Dialogue concerning,
46. Another dialogue respecting, 51.
Self denial shown not to be the es-
sence of, 63.

l'is Inertia of matter, remarks on the,

Voting, on the just proportion between
representation and, V. 169.
Voyage, Journal of a, from England to
America, by Franklin, I. 547. Plan
of a, for exchanging the productions
of civilized and uncivilized countries,
II. 378. Reason of the greater length
of the westward, than the eastward,
across the Atlantic, VI. 74. Means
of securing comfort on a, 491. Arti-
cles essential for a, 493.


WADDELL, Captain, effect of lightning
on his compass, V. 276.
Wages, to be raised in Europe by the
American Revolution, II. 435. Evils
arising from the low rate of, 436.
Impolicy of attempting to depress the
rate, 437. Low rate of, not the cause
of the advantages of commerce, 439.
Rates of, in the United States, 440.
Rates of, how to be affected in Europe
by the high rates in America, 441.
Effect of the facility of emigration
from Europe upon the rates of, 443.
WALPOLE, THOMAS, Circumstances re-
lating to a grant to him and others of
lands on the Ohio, IV. 302. Dissuades
Franklin from presenting his proposed
protest to Lord Dartmouth, V. el.
WALPOLE, Count de Vergennes's view
of his mission, IX. 329.
Walpole's Grant, some account of, I.
339. Extracts of letters from Franklin
on the subject, IV. 263. Alluded to,
VII. 355, 517. Franklin's agency in
procuring, VIII. 1. See Ohio Settle-


WALSH, JOHN, his discovery respecting
the torpedo, VI. 348.
Mode of ascer-
taining its essential quality, 349. His
discovery respecting the effect of a
vacuum on electricity, 413
WALTER, his experiments in logograph-
ic printing, X. 8.
WALTERSTORF is instructed to pro-
mote the conclusion of a commercial
treaty between Denmark and the
United States, IX. 487.

War, principles on which it should be
conducted, II. 487. Absurdity of
VIII. 417. Again, X. 26.
WASHINGTON, GEORGE, mentioned as
commander of the Virginia forces,

VII. 122. His views in regard to non-
importation and non-exportation reso-
lutions, 373. Committee appointed
by Congress to confer with, respecting
the army, VIII. 160. Cabals against,
305. His reputation in Europe, 376.
Proposal of Franklin to him to visit
Europe, 429. Houdon's statue of, X.
117. Congratulates Franklin on his
return from France, 225. Expresses
his readiness to sit to Houdon, 228.
Compliments Franklin on his recovery
of health, 397.
Water, passage of the electric fluid
through, V. 210. New relation be-
tween it and metals, 260. Correction
of the mistake that these alone are
conductors, 283. Experiments on
boiling, and glass heated by boil-
ing, 367. Of the explosion of, 393.
Mode of its solution in air, VI
128. Of the adhesion of, 160. Qual-
ities of its constituent particles, 161.
Mr. Todd's objection to Franklin's
theory relative to the attraction be-
tween air and, 171. Cooling of, by
evaporation, 214. Fresh, produced by
distillation, 218. Of salt, made fresh
by distillation, 231. More compressible
in winter than summer, 258. Differ-
ence of navigation in shoal and deep,
286. How to preserve it clear and
sweet, 324. Explosion of metallic or
glass drops in, 384. Vegetation of
plants in, 423.
Waterspouts, suggestion respecting the
cause of, VI. 136. Of direct and de-
scending, 137. Remarks on Stuart's
drawings of, 139. Description of one
at Antigua, 143. Whirlwinds sup-
posed to be identical with, 147. Their
motion and origin, 147. Descending,
probably rare, 149. Explanation of,
suggested, 150. Not always attended
by whirlwinds, 165. Why stopped
by thunder and cannon, 167. Circum-
stances favoring the idea of their de-
scent, 168. Colden's description of a,
179. Extract from Dampier's Voy-
ages relative to. 183. On the coast of
New Orleans, 185. Remarks of Mr.
Colden on, 199.
WATSON, RICHARD, Bishop of Landaff,
his Collection of Tracts mentioned, X.

WATSON, WILLIAM, his claim to the
discovery of positive and negative
electricity second to that of Franklin,
V. 173. His scientific character, and
his account of experiments on thun-
derclouds, 296. His abstract of Frank-
lin's electrical experiments and ob-
servations, 487.

WATSON, anecdotes of Franklin in his
Annals of Philadelphia, I. 91.
Way to make Money plenty in every
Man's Pocket, II. 82.

Way to Wealth, origin of Franklin's,
II. 92; its extensive circulation, 93.
Wealth of nations, positions to be ex-
amined concerning the, II. 373.
WEBSTER, NOAH, his philological la
bors commended, X. 413.
WEDDERBURN, his speech before the
Privy Council quoted, relative to the
Hutchinson letters, IV. 425. Detailed
account of his attack on Franklin on
that occasion, 447. Again, VIII. 105.
cret mission and plan of reconcilia-
tion, VIII. 278.

Wellingborough, Franklin's visit to
some relatives in, VII. 177.
WEST, BENJAMIN, portrait of Franklin
by, IX. 493.

WEST, protection of his house by a
lightning-rod, V. 375.

West Indian Colonies, reasons for pre-
ferring the North American colonies
to, IV. 35. Extent of their trade, as
compared with that of the northern, 37.
WHARTON, THOMAS, his view of the
importance of a change of govern-
ment in Pennsylvania, VII. 280. His
allusion to the services of Franklin,
314. To the repeal of the Stamp
Act, 318.

WHATELY, WILLIAM, his duel with
Mr. Temple, in consequence of the
publication of the Hutchinson letters,
IV. 434. His suit against Franklin,
437. Facts stated by, relative to the
letters, 445. His duel, VIII. 100.
WHATLEY, GEORGE, his tract on the
Principles of Trade mentioned, II.
383. His preface to Reflections on
Corn, 409. His Principles of Trade,
X. 132, 147.
Wheat, principle of the bounty on, II.
403. Expediency of reducing it, 405.
WHEATON, HENRY, his History of the
Northmen mentioned, II. 76; VIII.69.
Wheel, electrical, how constructed, V.
204. Its moving force, 205. Con.
struction of a self-moving, 206.
Whig Principles, some good, stated, 'I


Whigs, Franklin's advice to the Eng
lish, VIII. 243.

Whirlwind, suggestion respecting the
cause of a, VI. 135. Suggestion of
their identity with waterspouts, 147.
Their origin and motion, 147. De-
scending ones rare, 148. Most com.
mon in the daytime, 149. Explana-
tion of, suggested, 150. Do not always

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