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operating, for how otherwife can he "act through "all duration." My reafoning upon this principle relates to thofe only who maintain it; and I have supposed it, merely to preclude an objec tion that might be founded upon it, as will manifeftly appear to every attentive and intelligent Reader.
As I cannot but confider the poftfcript of this letter as a mere piece of pleafantry, I fhall only congratulate my correfpondent upon the tranfient gleam of good humour in which it was written, and difmifs him with my hearty wishes that fuch intervals for the future may be frequent and long.
As to any mistakes which affect neither the work nor Mr. Dalrymple, I might certainly retort upon him the principle advanced in his letter, "that a certain degree of approbation is due "to every performance intended for the public
information, however ill that performance may "be executed, without which it fhould not be "mentioned," he is however welcome to any pleafure which the violation of this principle has given him, and having now fhewn the attention which I thought due to his name, I fhall without repining, pay my part of the tax which is continually levied for the liberty of the prefs, however long, to the refpite of my betters, I may continue to be the favourite topic of anonymous defamation,
Bromley, Kent, 2d August, 1773.
A BACK, the fituation of the fails when their
furfaces are flatted against the mafts by the force of the wind. The fails are faid to be taken aback, when they are brought into this fituation, either by a fudden change of the wind, or by an alteration in the ship's ED. course. They are laid aback, to effect an immediate re
EXPLANATION of the NAUTICAL TERMS
not generally understood which occur in this WORK.
treat, without turning to the right or left; in order to avoid fome danger.
ABAFT, the hinder part of a ship.
AFT, behind, or near the stern of the ship.
ANCHOR, the principal are the fheet anchor, the beft bower and the fmall bower, fo called from their fituation in the fhip's bows. The fmaller anchors, are the ftream anchor, the kedge anchor, and the grap pling.
AWNING, a canopy of canvafs extending over the decks of a ship in hot weather.
AZIMUTH-COMPASS, an inftrument employed to discover the magnetical azimuth or amplitude of any heavenly object. This operation is performed at fea, to find the exact variation of the magnetical needle.
TO BALANCE, to contract a fail into a narrower compass, in a storm, by retrenching or folding up a part of it at one corner.
BEAMS, ftrong thick pieces of timber, stretching across the ship from fide to fide, to fupport the decks, and retain the fides at their proper diftance. On the weather beam, is on the weather fide of the ship.
To BELAY, to faften a rope by winding it feveral times round a cleat, belaying-pin, or kevel.
BENDING a fail, faftening it to its yard or stay. BIGHT, the double part of a rope when it is folded, in contradiftinction to the end.
BIGHT, is alfo a fmall bay between two points of land.
BULGE, or BILGE, that part of the floor of a fhip, on either fide of the keel, which approaches nearer to an horizontal than to a perpendicular direction, and on which the ship would reft if laid on the ground: or more particularly, thofe parts of the bottom which are oppofite to the heads of the floor-timbers amidships on each fide of the keel. Hence, when a fhip receives a fracture in this place, she is faid to be bilged.
BIRTH, the ftation in which a fhip rides at anchor.
BIRTH, alfo fignifies the room or apartment where any particular number of the officers or ship's company ufually mefs and refide.
BOARD, the line over which the fhip runs between tack and tack, when she is turning to windward, or failing against the direction of the wind.
BOW, the rounding part of a fhip's fide forward, beginning at the place where the planks arch inwards, and terminating where they close at the ftem or prow.
BREAKERS, billows that break violently over rocks lying under the furface of the fea.
To BRING-TO, to check the course of a ship when The is advancing, by arranging the fails in fuch a manmer as that they fhall counter-act each other, and pre
vent her either from retreating or moving forward. In this fituation the fhip is faid to lie-by, or lie-to.
BULK-HEADS, certain partitions, or walls, built up in feveral places of a fhip between two decks, either lengthways or acrofs, to form and feparate the various
BUOY, a fort of clofe cafk, or block of wood, faftened by a rope to the anchor, to determine the place where the anchor is fituated.
CABLE's length, a hundred and twenty fathom.
CAP, a ftrong, thick block of wood, ufed to confine two mafts together, when the one is erected at the head of the other, in order to lengthen it. It is for this pur pose furnished with two holes perpendicular to its length and breadth, and parallel to its thickness; one of these is fquare, and the other round; the former being folidly fixed upon the upper end of the lower-maft, whilst the latter receives the maft employed to lengthen it, and fecures it in this pofition.
CAPSTERN, or CAPSTAN, a ftrong, maffy column of timber, formed like a truncated cone, and having its upper extremity pierced with a number of holes to receive the bars or levers. It is let down perpendicularly through the decks of a fhip, and is fixed in fuch manner, that the men, by turning it horizontally with their bars, may perform any work which requires an extraordinary effort.
CASTING, the motion of falling off, fo as to bring the direction of the wind on either fide of the fhip after it had blown for fome time right a- -head.
CHAINS, frong links or plates of iron, the lower ends of which are bolted through the fhip's fide to the timbers. They are placed at fhor: diftances from each other on the ship's outfide, as being ufed to contain the blocks called
called dead-eyes, by which the shrouds of the mafts are extended.
CHEEKS of the maft, the faces or projecting parts on each fide of the mafts, ufed to fuftain the frame of the top, together with the top-mast, which rests immediately upon them.
CLAWING, or CLAWING-OFF, the act of beating or turning to windward from a lee fhore, fo as to acquire a fufficient diftance from it, to escape the dangers of fhipwreck.
CLEATS, pieces of wood of different fhapes, ufed occafionally to fasten ropes upon in a ship.
CLENCH, or CLINCH, that part of a cable, or other rope, which is fakened to the ring of the anchor.
To CLEW, or CLUE-UP, to trufs the fails up to the yards by tackles faftened to their lower corners, called their clues.
CLOSE upon a wind, or CLOSE-HAULED, the general arrangement or trim of a fhip's fails, when the endeavours to make a progress in the nearest direction poffible towards that point of the compafs from which the wind
COCKSWAIN, or COXEN, the officer who manages and fteers a boat, and has the command of the boat's crew.
COMPANION, a fort of wooden porch placed over the entrance or stair-case of the master's cabbin in a merchant-ship.
COURSES, a name by which the principal fails of a hip are usually distinguished, viz. the main-fail, forefail, and mizen.
CRANK, the quality of a ship which for want of a fufficient quantity of ballast or cargo, is rendered incapable of carrying fail without being exposed to the danger of overturning.