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ART. XX.-Stories for Young Children. By the Author of "Conversations on Chemistry," &c. 12mo, pp. 103. London: Longman, &c. 1831.

A VERY pretty little book, well calculated to explain to children, in language which they may easily comprehend, many of the common objects which at first puzzle their uninformed minds, such as the building of houses, the planting of trees, the manufacture of bricks, the cutting of glass, and some of the simplest elements of mechanics. The incidents of the stories in which these things are explained are natural and sufficiently attractive.

ART. XXI.-1. Pietas Privata.The Book of Private Devotion : A series of Prayers and Meditations; with an Introductory Essay on Prayer, chiefly from the writings of Hannah More. 2. Daily Communings, Spiritual and Devotional. By the Right Rev. George Horne. London: Nisbet, 1831.

Thunder Storms.-In England, thunder-storms generally occur in the afternoon. Of thirty-five remarkable ones which are noticed in the Philosophical Transactions, twenty-seven commenced between noon and midnight; generally it was about three or four in the afternoon. One lasted all day, and

WE are glad to meet with such publications as these, for never was there a period, perhaps, in the history of the world, when they were so much wanted. Mrs. Hannah More's religions feelings are well known-her whole life having been one round of dedication to pious Dr. Horne's Communings' form a and benevolent thoughts. complete manual of religion in themselves. A passage is selected from the Psalms, which is slightly amplified, and at the same time expounded, in the prayer, or rather we might call it the aspiration that follows it; and thus a small volume is composed, which may be said to contain the spiritual essence of the whole Book of the Psalms. One of these prayers is appropriated to each day in the year. The two volumes are beautifully printed, and would easily find room in a gentleman's waistcoat-pocket, or a lady's reticule.

MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE.

the remaining seven were in the morning.

Flower Stakes.-No person who is fond of flowers should think of using wooden laths to support them. A much more substantial, as well as an infinitely more elegant substitute for the lath will be found in the delicate iron stakes

which are now manufactured for that purpose, and which are particularly well calculated for sustaining all the tall growing plants, such as fuschias, georginas, pinks, and others which require protection against high winds. The evil of wood is, that it soon becomes decayed, and easily yielding to the blast, both plant and stake fall at once to the ground. Moreover, the iron rod from its slightness is much less conspicuous than the wood, and consequently tends in no degree to diminish the natural beauty of the plant to which it lends assistance.

Red Spiders.-These insects are the pest of some gardens. It is recommended by an experimentalist, that the leaves of plants which they infest, should be frequently syringed on both sides with clear water, which has been found completely to destroy them. In green-houses the same effect may be produced, by the application of steam.

Atmospheric Tides. It has been inferred with a great degree of probability, from a variety of ascertained facts, that there exists an analogy between the lunar influence on the tides of the ocean and the temperature of the atmosphere. During the last winter, the lowest degree of temperature, both in London and Paris, was in each period of frost the day, or day but one, after one of the lunar quarters.

Elevation of Territory.- From observations that have been made by Boblaye, in the Morea and Egina, it appears that the whole soil of the Peninsula has risen considerably, not in a continuous manner, but by sudden starts, so that the grounds abandoned by the sea, are marked out in steps or layers, in irregular gradations.

Mr. Campbell.-This gentleman

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has of late been a watcher of the dead. The breath had scarcely quitted the frame of Sir Thomas Lawrence, when the author of the "Pleasures of Hope" was proclaimed as already engaged upon the memoirs of the illustrious artist. The task, however, if ever really undertaken, was soon abandoned. Now, again, a similar trick is played off with respect to Mrs. Siddons, who was no sooner buried than her will was opened, bequeathing to the same gentleman the task of celebrating her name to all posterity. It is said that she has left considerable materials for her biography if so, we hope that they will be consigned to some person who really will make use of them.

Cholera Morbus.-It is reported that this dreadful malady has already found its way to Vienna, and to Pest in Hungary. It appears from the Riga Medical Report up to the morning of the 15th of June, that the total number of hospital patients was 1,386; cured, 308; dead, 798; house patients, 1,226; cured, 558; dead, 488. Total, 2,612 cured, 866; dead, 1,286; and left, 466. The physicians say that the disease is now of a much milder character than at first. From the 31st of May to the 1st June, there were only twenty-four deaths; from the 1st (13th) to the 2d (14th) thirty-one deaths, but only seventynine new cases. From the 2d (14th) to the 3d (15th) twenty-nine, and eighty-five new cases, whilst hitherto upwards of 100 people were daily attacked. The number of hospital deaths alone was from sixty to seventy daily.

M. Bonpland. Tidings have been at length received of this eminent naturalist. From a letter written by him to a friend at Buenos Ayres, it appears, notwithstanding all the reports which have been

propagated to the contrary, that he has been at perfect liberty during the whole period of his stay in Paraguay. He was latterly getting opulent, which appears to have been the real cause of his dismissal. He quite regrets his departure, if we are to believe the language of his epistle. "In order," "In order," he says, "to put an end to the melancholy suppositions which you and all my friends must naturally have made relative to my existence during the nine years of my detention in Paraguay, I must tell you, that I have passed as happy a life as could be expected by one deprived of all communication with his country, his family, and his friends. The practice of medicine has always afforded me the means of subsistence; but as this did not entirely occupy my time, I employed myself, from disposition and necessity, in agriculture, which has given me infinite enjoyments. At the same time I had established a manufactory of brandy and liqueurs, and likewise a carpenter's and a blacksmith's shop, which not only defrayed the expenses of my agricultural establishment, but yielded some profits from the work performed for private individuals. In this manner I had acquired the means of living with the greatest comfort. On the 12th of May, 1829, without any preliminary, the authorities of Santiago communicated to me the order of the Supreme Director to leave the country. This intimation was a mixture of justice and wrong, which I cannot yet account for in a positive manner. In short, driven about from the 12th of May, 1829, to 2d of February, 1831-that is, during twenty months and twenty days-I at length passed the Parana with all the honours of This second epoch of my life in Paraguay has been real punish

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ment to me. I had never given any one cause of complaint,--I had endeavoured to gain the esteem of all. Even the Supreme Dictator, all. from my arrival in the republic until the 12th of May, 1829, had allowed me the greatest liberty, and the heads of the department in which I was domiciliated treated me with kindness. At last, as every thing has an end, the director definitively decreed my departure from Paraguay, and has done it in the most generous manner. I am at liberty, and soon hope to embrace you."

Optical deception.-Upon the Liverpool and Manchester rail-road, when the carriages are proceeding at the rate of fourteen or fifteen miles an hour, the rail, as well as the trees and houses on each side, seem to the eye of the traveller to move in a contrary direction; but when the speed is doubled, though the trees and houses still appear to preserve their contrary progress, the iron rail on the road seems to move in the direction of the carriages, and as it were to emulate their velocity. This is the effect of an optical deception. The rails have, at certain distances, slight irregularities in their junction with each other, which, when the velocity is moderate, are sufficient to arrest the eye in passing, and to give them an appearance, while they are passed, of receding in a contrary direction. But when the speed is greatly increased, these irregularities are no longer discernible ;there is nothing seen upon the rails to shew that any particular part is passed by, and the whole seems to move with the carriages, whereas the trees and houses are still sufficiently defined objects, and still seem to have been passed by as beføre.

Philosopher Walker.-It is with much regret we learn that the

daughter of the late Adam Walker, a man who rendered so many services to his country, whose life indeed is truly said to have been one continued and devoted effort to increase the intelligence, and advance the interests, and improve the condition of the human species, is now a widow, with a son and daughter wholly unprovided for, and is left exposed to the want of the common necessaries of existence. Assuredly some provision ought to be made for the descendants of an individual, who has deserved at least fully as well of his counrry as most of the great sinecurists by whose pensions it is burthened.

Mr. Roscoe. The literary world has recently lost one of the most distinguished, as well as the most venerable of its members, in Mr. Roscoe, who was long known to the public as an elegant historian, and an honest patriot. He had reached his 80th year, and died on Thursday, the 30th of June, at his house in Lodge-lane, Liverpool. We are given to understand that the life and correspondence of Mr. Roscoe are already in preparation for the press by some of the members of his family. These, together with his miscellaneous works on a variety of important subjects, will be printed uniformly with an octavo edition of the Lives of Lorenzo and Leo X. The correspondence, we understand, embraces a period of nearly sixty years, during which this celebrated writer was in the habit of communicating with the most distinguished characters of the age, both literary and political.

Steam Carriages.-There is little doubt that these vehicles will soon be brought to a degree of perfection, which will enable them to be applied to the purposes of conveyance both of goods and passengers on the high road. Messrs. Heaton, of Birmingham, have recently obtained

a patent for such a combination of contrivances, which are already separately known, as makes their steam carriages better calculated to overcome the inequalities of roads than any other now in use. They

may be turned round the sharpest corner with as much ease as a stage coach. In order to prevent the loss of speed caused upon rail-roads by ascents, Messrs. Vignoles and Ericson have added a third rail in the centre of the road, proportioned to the requisite distance, in which rail there are teeth that catch a central wheel contrived for the purpose of assisting the vehicle up the inclined plane.

Church Patronage.-The Duke of Buccleugh inherits no fewer than thirty patronages in Scotland. The following is a list of the parishes whose ecclesiastical livings are at his disposal:-Dalkeith, Kirknewtown, Inveresk, Hawick, Wiltown, St. Boswell's, Melrose, Middlebie, Dornock, Hoddam, Kirkmichael, Langholm, Canobie, Castletown, Ewes, Westerkirk, Eskdale Muir, Terregles, Kirkmachoe, Kirk bean, Colvend, Lochrutton, Penport, Keir, Glencairn, Tynron, Kirkconnel, Durrisdeer, Morton, Sanquhar.

Joan of Arc.-A most remarkable monument has lately been discovered at Orleans. It is no other than the greater part of the turrets of the old bridge that formed so distinguished a scene in that interesting episode of the history of France, of which Joan of Arc was the beroine.

Bees. By the successful mode in which Mr. Nutt manages his bees, he contrives to obtain from one hive, in the course of five years, nearly eight hundred pounds of honey, clear of all charges. His plan is not only thus productive beyond all others, but he never loses a bee, unless by natural demise or mere accident. There is no swarm

ing, no tinkling of the pan. The insects have abundance of room, and are constantly employed during the gathering season. We hope that he may be induced to favour the public with the particulars of his mode of management; indeed he owes it to the winged nations, for whose welfare he has so long and so fortunately laboured.

New Motive Power.-A letter was recently read at the Academy of Sciences in Paris, in which the writer asserted that he had discovered a new moving power, resulting from a combination of two chemical agents with a certain mechanical principle, which is applicable to every species of labour, and particularly to locomotion on public roads. He does not give any further explanations, waiting, we suppose, for the perfection of his patent.

Etruscan Antiquities.-It is said. that Sir William Gell has recently made some valuable discoveries of Etruscan antiquities, anterior to the Roman era, which he is engaged in preparing for publication.

Prize Essay. The Medico-Botanical Society of London have resolved that their gold medal should be offered for the best essay in the English, French, German or Latin language, on the question, "What is the vegetable substance which could be employed with success in the cure of Hydrophobia?"—and that their silver medal should be offered for the best essay "On the medicinal qualities and uses of any indigenous plant which is not yet sufficiently known, or on new uses and applications of any other indigenous plants," provided that such essays possess sufficient merit, that they should be received till the close of the present year, and that the medals should be bestowed at the next anniversary.

Sour Beer.-Most housekeepers

must have found a difficulty in preserving their beer from turning sour in summer weather. Upon the supposition that acidity is produced by the introduction of too much atmospheric air into the cask, through the vent hole, a little invention has been suggested, which seems capable of counteracting that evil. Instead of opening the vent to the air, it is placed in communication with a copper ball filled with carbonic acid gas. The ball is screwed into the cask: and it has a small cock, which is opened as soon as the beer ceases to run through the brass cock below, and admits a quantity of the gas; this gas pressing on the liquid, not only causes it to run out with facility, but also impregnates it with a gas such as we may observe in the manufacture of soda water.

TO CORRESPONDENTS.

We can assure the author of the Welsh Tales that we expected to meet in his work not much more than the ordinary share of nonsense. We have been indeed surprized to find so much of that common quality in his letter. He cannot deliberately suppose that our object was to injure him. He is an old reviewer, he says; if so, we presume that he judges of us from what he would have done himself under similar circumstances.

The Rev. Mr. Potter has addressed us in almost a similar tone; as if indeed we never can pass judgment upon any literary work without being influenced by personal motives. We have not the honour of the reverend gentleman's acquaintance; and, until we saw his book, never heard even of his name. How then is it possible that we should be liable to the charge which he, rather angrily, brings against us?

To M. M. we answer, that the question of Church Reform is one which we shall take leave to treat in our own way. We shall be glad, however, to profit of his suggestions. Upon the same subject we must inform Londinensis that his threats of denouncement have no effect whatever upon the editor of this journal. A public prosecution indeed! The Age of the Inquisition has passed, and let him take care whether he may not be only hastening to pull down the house about his

own ears!

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