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The effect, particularly after he had perused the Vera Christiana Religio, was sudden but permanent, and the reverend gentleman became an unreserved apostle of the Swedenborgian doctrine. Mr. Noble tells us, that before Mr. Clowes had been brought over to the new religion, it could not be said, to number amongst its professors, more than above twelve persons throughout the world -but that after that reverend gentleman had revised the creed of Swedenborg, and translated and dispersed the writings of his new master-and further, after having made considerable personal exertions to propagate the novel faith himself, the effect was very striking. In most parts of the kingdom there are now societies of Swedenborgians established-they are found in France, Germany, Sweden, and of course in the United States of America, which must be admitted to bear the palm in respect of the ardour of its hospitality towards new doctrines in general.
Now for our own parts, we feel that it would be just as proper for us to quarrel with Mr. Clowes for choosing smoky Manchester for his residence, as it would be to blame him for giving a preference to the religion of Swedenborg. But what we cannot very easily digest, is this very sterling fact, that after having avowed and taught the peculiar tenets of Swedenborg, he still retained his rectorship as a priest of the church of England, and that too, we believe, until the day of his death. Mr. Noble, with great suavity as well as ingenuity, attempts to palliate this glaring inconsistency, and tells us that the emoluments of the rectorship were consumed, or nearly so, by the expenses of the curacy. What has that fact to do with the principle of the question? If Mr. Clowes was a real Swedenborgian,
what business had he to pretend that he was a minister of the church? He must have deceived those who were ignorant of his real faith: and to those who were aware of his double character, he has left this precious sentiment as a legacy, that a man may, with impunity, be a disbeliever in the doctrines of the church, and hold at the same time a confidential office in the ministry of that church. We sincerely hope that such an example will never be imitated, and indeed we cannot see how it can, by any person having honestly and conscientiously changed from one set of religious opinions to another.
ART. XV.-An Equitable Property Tax: a financial Speculation: and a fair rate of wages to the Labouring Poor. By a Loyal Briton. 8vo. pp. 24. London. THE 'Loyal Briton' in this case is, we believe, the Rev. Richard Warner, a gentleman who has been long distinguished for the benevolent and useful attention which he has paid to the interests of the labouring poor. The object of his present tract is to show, which he does by a comparative calculation of receipt and necessary expenditure, that the wages of the labouring poor are altogether inadequate to their maintenance. Considering that the ancient advantages which they possessed in the commons, forests and wastes, and that their cottages in many places have been altogether taken away from them, he insists that it would only be equitable for the landlords to divide all their large farms into two or more smaller ones, none exceeding the annual rent of 300l. a year, and not letting more than one farm to the same individual, a practice
which, if universally adopted, would, he thinks, increase the demand for human labour to an indefinite amount. He suggests that, in addition to this, they should grant long leases on a moderate rent, and bind the farmer, in consideration thereof, to employ a certain number of labourers at fixed wages; that they should allot to the peasantry on their estates, on just conditions, small portions of land for their own use, build comfortable cottages for them, and manifest at least the same solicitude for them which they feel for the preservation of game'-the effect of all of which favours, if they were conceded by the landlords to the fullest extent of Mr. Warner's wishes, would be just like an experiment to appease the angry ocean by pouring a phial of oil upon its surface! Unless a very extensive system of emigration be adopted and acted upon in the course of a very few years, or unless war, or the cholera morbus, or some such plague, "thin the land," wages must of necessity bear no proporto the constantly increasing expenses of the necessaries of life.
With respect to the reverend gentleman's proposition of a property tax, that is a much more practicable affair. He would take off all those imposts which press severely upon industry, and supply the amount of them by a tax fairly levied upon property. The proposition is very far from being new; but it is not, therefore, the less worthy of consideration.
ART. XVI.-Selections from the Poems of William Wordsworth, Esq., chiefly for the use of Schools, and Young Persons. 8vo, pp. 365. London: Moxon. 1831. THIS school book has long been a desideratum, and it gives us plea
sure to find that it has been at length supplied. Although we do not deem ourselves worthy to be enumerated amongst those persons who are so enthusiastic in their admiration of Mr. Wordsworth's poetry, that they prefer it to every other in the English language, and speak of it and of its author with a kind of reverence approaching to idolatry, yet we hope that we can feel the beauties of his natural imagery, and the simplicity of his diction, and the fervent glow of his thoughts, as fully as the most devoted of his worshippers. We will not, indeed, swear that "Peter Bell" is the most charming poem that ever was written; yet even in Peter Bell we can recognise some of Wordsworth's most peculiar merits. The selections here extracted from his works are for the most part judiciously made, and the volume is in every respect so well adapted to the purpose for which it is intended, that we hope it may find its way very generally into the hands of youth.
ART. XVII.-A Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Diocese of Bath and Wells, at the Visitation of the Diocese, in May and June, 1831. 4to. pp. 23. Wells: Backhouse. London: Rodwell and Rivington. 1831.
THE air of Christian charity, of sincerity and truth that breathes throughout this address, must recommend it most powerfully to the attention of the community at large. Dr. Law opens his charge with a formidable picture of the state of the country, in which, however, we do not recognise a single trait of exaggeration he paints crime of every kind-crime marked too in characters of a deep and unwonted dye, as on the increase; vice stalking abroad in higher life, at noon day,
we have never seen them clothed in more persuasive language.
'The mind of man shrinks from, and dreads the idea of annihilation. It looks with fond and anxious hope to future and brighter scenes; to a reunion with those we have loved upon earth made Saints in Heaven. Surely then we are justified in believing that a God of all power, and of all justice, would not have implanted in our Souls this aspiration after, this longing for immortality, if it were a state we are never destined to attain. This feeling then, which gives life a charm ; which is the parent of noble thought and action; this, cannot be the groundless vision of the fancy: an expectation which never is to be realized-a desire which never can be granted. Far more consistent is it even with the deductions of our reason alone to believe, that the hope of bursting the bands of death and triumphing over the King of Terrors, is an instinct which will lead to its own fruition; that it is a link which unites earth to heaven, an anticipation which may render us more fit partakers of those joys that are to be revealed.'
It is no part of our object, at present, to enter into those doctrines trines advanced by the prelate, which many members of his own church, not to speak of the dissenters, strongly contravert. We may observe, however, that his explanation of the intimate connection between faith and good works is as concise as it is exact and eloquent in language. Among the causes of those evils which, he says, the church has to deplore, he particularly notices those wild and enthusiastic notions of religion, which are at present so frequently inculcated in conventicles, and sometimes even in our public ways and fields! The tendency of such
unabashed and unconscious of shame; whilst among the lower orders there prevails a spirit of insubordination that brooks no restraint, appearing in frequent instances of cruelty, and midnight depredations, hitherto foreign to the character of our peo-, ple.' And,' adds the Right Rev. Prelate, what is of all circumstances the most appalling, the truths and precepts of our holy religion itself, are by many lightly regarded, if not entirely set at nought and despised.' The Bishop, after stating these alarming facts, tells his clergy that the most effectual mode of endeavouring to arrest this general career of sin, is to inculcate a clear knowledge of the uncorruped doctrines of religion, natural and revealed, upon both of which subjects he expatiates at considerable length with his wonted eloquence. Let not then,' he recommends, the Sunday pass by, so frequently, as of late it hath done, without your displaying to your hearers the goodness of the Almighty, in th: formation and providential care of his creatures. Convince them that the line which the Deity has marked out for them by his eternal laws, is the path of virtue. Every act of obedience to the will of our Creator, hath its appropriate inducement and recompence. Kindness is, for the most part, repaid by kindness. Temperance is its own reward. Industry hath in its right hand, length of days; and in its left hand, competence and content.' If the virtuous be sometimes overwhelmed with misfortunes, this is but a proof that there is a better world, in which they shall meet with their reward; nor is this, he contends, the only evidence which natural religion affords of a resurrection from the dead. The Bishop's ideas upon this point have often been inculcated before, but NO. II. (1831.) VOL. IV.
preaching,' he adds, 'is too often to reconcile a life of sin with the assuredness of salvation'! The prelate thinks the present systems of toleration and of education rather too unlimited, and as so many causes of the evils which he laments, to which he adds the distressed state of the poor. Upon this latter point he agrees in principle with Mr. Warner, in recommending to those of his clergy who have glebes, to let out to each labourer with a family, a small allotment of land, upon which they might subsist in content and peace. The bishop clearly sees, and would endeavour to stem, the tide of opinion so strongly setting in against the whole system, spiritual and secular of the established church, and prudently concludes with informing his clergy that he is a friend to reform, hoping that they will follow his example. We trust that his advice will not have been given in vain.
ART. XVIII.-Thoughts on Various Subjects. By William Danby, Esq., of Swinton Park, Yorkshire. 8vo. pp. 253. London: Rivington. York: Todd. 1831. WE have here a Second Edition of Mr. Danby's "Ideas and Realities," considerably enlarged, and we may justly add much improved. Wit he ains not at, humour he never affects; and though he would risk occasionally to pass to the lively from the severe, he cannot be charged with much of the buoyant qualities of mirth. His thoughts are such as we may easily suppose likely to float through the mind of a country gentleman, liberally educated, surrounded by useful books, enjoying all the luxuries of a pleasant seat in Yorkshire, and finding employment in his many leisure
hours in the soothing occupations of literature. It is something for such a man to be able to say to himself every morning-Well, I shall advance so far in the preparation of my book to day! We can easily understand the feeling with which Mr. Danby sent the proof of his last sheet to the press. It must have been like parting with a friend, who had long been near him, and kept away the blue devils from his library. The general current of his 'thoughts' is sober, religious, and respectable, without being very profound. They are generally clearly, sometimes neatly expressed; as in the following three or four specimens, which we shall cite.
'Life has its pleasures, but the only real ones are those which are doubled on reflection; and they are most felt in the encouragement they give to hope for more.'
Nothing can add more to the expression of our feelings than laying our hand on the arm of him to whom we are expressing them. It is an argumentum ad fratrem, a kind of animal magnetism, an electric chain, that conveys the fluid to the breast of him whom we are addressing ourselves to, if he has feelings to receive it, and if the address is worthy of exciting them. It disposes him to sympathize with us, and to listen to us with the same confidence that we seem to place in him; accordingly it is introduced into the conversation between Yorick and the Mendicant Friar, in the "Sentimental Journey," and it is much more interesting to me to recollect it in one whose example I most wish to follow, and whose memory I have the most reason to respect; my own father. This expression of natural feeling is surely among the most pleasant that can be given, received, or recorded: and if all that accompanies it is in concurrence with it, we cannot well doubt of its sincerity. It has the feeling of truth, and should only be expressive of it.'
The mind's exertion of its own powers is very sufficient to show that there is much beyond them; and the glimpse that it catches of this is as sure
a proof that it is within the reach of higher intelligence.'
lish poetry. A single example, from the version of Mr. Canning's
In all cases of personal attachment
between the sexes, the less sensuality Pilgrimage to Mecca, will, we think, fully justify our applause.
there is the better; for whatever degree of sentiment may be mixed with it, it is still the part that draws the human nearer to the mere animal nature, and not the less so for the sentiment that may be mixed with it; for the comparison must be made between the two; Moore's
ART. XIX.-Translations of the Ox-
To men of classical education, especially to those who have been educated at the universities, the publication of which we have here the first series, will be eminently acceptable. It is to contain translations of the best Latin poems which have gained prizes at Oxford, and we may observe the interest which the work excites from the long and highly respectable list of Subscribers, with which the present volume is ushered into the world. Of the manner in which the translations are executed, we do not hesitate to speak in terms of the highest praise. The energy and modulation of the verse, reminds us in every page of the best days of Eng
What holy rites Mohammed's laws ordain;
What various duties bind his faithful
What pious zeal his scatter'd tribes unites
With annual pomp the consecrated ground;
The Muse shall tell:-revolving years succeed,
And Time still venerate Mohammed's creed.
'Nor faint the glory shed o'er Mecca's brow:
Land of the Prophet! dear to fame art thou.
Here first in peace his infant hopes were
Here fix'd the Chief his temple and his
With stern defiance drove the gifted
Yet, sacred city of his love! 'twas thine
To own the terrors of his conquering
And hail with joy the Exile thou hast
A voice divine the wandering Abraham
Within thy courts, at his command re
Blazed the pure altars of Creation's Lord.
His seat of empire hence thy walls be
And shared for sanctity Mohammed's fame.
Nor strange that hence, with pious gifts array'd,
Thy shrine revered the Moslem tribes invade;