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wait for a good while. In a word, you have got nothing whatever but your lieutenant's epaulette. As to Paulette, she has got nothing either-so that you have nothing, and she has nothing—which added together make a total-nothing. Then, you cannot marry at present. Wait awhile ; we shall yet see better days, my friend. Yes, we shall, when I am able to seek them in another part of the world.” —pp. 281–285.

With these quotations, which will give a very fair idea of the importance and value of this work, we shall dismiss the first volume. It is our intention to notice the contents of each succeeding volume as it issues from the press.

NOTICES.

Art. X.-The Church Establish- England. His doctrine is, that

ment founded in error. By a enough was not done, in the way Layman. 8vo. pp. 219. London: of radical change at the period Wilson. 1831.

of the reformation, and that the Upon all sides enemies are rising,

omissions which occurred then, we may say in masses, against the through inadvertence, ignorance, church. The House of Commons or haste, ought now to be supplied, already has declared itself deter- it being admitted, by one of her mined to withhold at a future period own advocates, that “ the church of the venerable grant to the venerable England has gone on from the comsociety for the propagation of the mencement of the reformation of Gospel in foreign parts; the Bishop- religion until the present time, a ric of Derry remains still vacant,

period of almost 300 years, acand will doubtless be subjected to knowledging and lamenting her considerable curtailment; and a own incompleteness in some imporsevere scrutiny is going on in the tant particulars, but prevented by legislature into the whole of the some extraneous circumstances revenues of the Irish church, we from applying the remedy." In presume with a view to their par- the mean time the people, not seetial, if not, indeed, their total aboli- ing these faults, have gone on from tion. Divines complain of the li- father to son, supposing the church turgy, and of pluralities, and epis- to be a model of truth, those who copal translations in both countries,

dissent from it being occasionand here we have a layman boldly ally flattered with a relaxation of asserting the English church esta- the penal laws, that in times of exblishment to be in error; a propo

citement were passed against them, sition wbich he has established so and being hitherto contented with much to his own satisfaction, that the growing liberality of tolerahe places it as the very front and tion—which, in the author's opititle page of his pamphlet. He can- nion,' is as disgraceful to its aunot be said, like certain other

oppo

thors as to its endurers, and is nents of the establishment, to be a moreover insulting to the majesty Papist in disguise, for be condemns and wisdom of heaven, who has the system of the catholic church pronounced every man to be a free as much as that of the church of agent. He then expresses his be

lief that the period is rapidly approaching when it will become a work of necessity, if not of choice, very much to modify, perhaps altogether to destroy, the connection between the church and state.'

Various causes have been assigned for the turn which public opinion has taken in this direction: some good persons assure themselves that it is entirely owing to the want of a sufficient number of churches! but, strange to say, in proportion as the number of new churches increases, that of the disciples of the church decreases, in something like a mathematical proportion. Some say that it is to be attributed to the press, and to the erroneous notions of their own importance which it circulates amongst the people; while others admit that the chuch requires a few alterations, and that if these were effected, it would, as by law now established, be the best of all other practicable systems for the pure perpetuation of Christianity. Our author ridicules all these notions, and courageously contends that the true cause of the declension of the church, and of the increase of dissent, is to be found in the errors which pervade the establishment, errors which may be traced in its origin and progress, in the hypotheses upon which it is maintained, in its characteristic features, in the sacrifices by which it is upheld, and the evils it inflicts upon the church of Christ, individuals, and society. Not, however, that churchmen may not be saved; on the contrary, our layman excludes nobody but the unjust from heaven, where he hopes to meet the professors of every variety of creed, into which Christianity has yet been divided. So far, it cannot be denied that at least he is an amiable opponent.

The author then proceeds to

give an historical view of the origin and progress of the church of England, comparing it, as he advances, with the simplicity of the primitive church, which certainly did not count amongst its supporters Bishops with principalities at their command, nor pluralities of wealthy benefices. The union of the church with the state let in upon the former the tide of corruption which now overwhelms it, and that union might have been, and, as he insists,

:

ought to have been broken up at the reformation.' The investiture of the sovereign with supreme spiritual power, was without legitimate precedent, and therefore could not have been necessary to the amicable settlement of the church but the reformers in this act voluntarily remained in the twilight, and the papal power was transferred to the princes of the countries that adopted the reformed doctrine! The fact is true, but the author speaks of reformers, as if what he calls reform began in England with a body of men attached to Christianity. He seems to forget that here it commenced with, and was carried on by the sovereigns of the country, originating with Henry VIII., who took good care to provide that whatever changes took place should tend rather to the increase than the diminution of their authority.

After thus detailing the circumstances and consequences of the union of the church with the state, the author argues that, whatever may have been the regulations. under the Jewish law, no authority was ever delegated to the Apostles to intreat, still less to command the assistance of political institutions; and upon this point we think that his position is unassailable. Such a connection he contends to be one of pagan

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origin, and indeed he thinks that the Puritans, than to those of the this is not the only pagan practice chartered sect. When the church which the church of England has of Scotland relinquished Its popish adopted. With respect to the sup- tenets, it also lost its papistical port of the clergy, they ought un- endowments. Such an act of justice doubtedly to be decently maintain- ought to be rendered to the Roman ed; but that the subject, whether Catholics of this country. It does professing the religion of the state not appear to us that there is eren or not, should be compelled to con- the shadow of justification for so tribute to the support of any body great a violation of the sacred obliof men, is obviously unjust! The gation of testamentary bequests, as primitive teachers of the Gospel is involved in the possession of the were not maintained in any such property in question; and sure are manner; their means of subsistence

we, that so long as the church of were drawn from the voluntary con- England continues to receive the tributions of the people, made, not usurped possessions, she cannot from fear of a citation, but from fail to be as obnoxious to the religious motives. The tax becomes Almighty, as she is opposed to a positive injustice when it is im- every principle of right.' posed upon persons who dissent We cannot, in a notice, go through from the established faith, who be- the whole of the author's reasoning: lieve that it is erroneous, and who it will be sufficient for us to add, are thus prevented from giving to that he shows, with admirable force, the support of their own religion as that the incorporation of the church much as they could afford, if they sect with the state, and the enorhad vot that unjust tax to pay. The mous revenue which it draws from author dwells at considerable length, the people, is a virtual continuation and reasons with unanswerable force of penal laws against all dissenters; upon this part of his subject, and that the church is a mere secular maintains that the church tax is an association; that the secular authounfair premium upon a particular rity constantly interferes in the apsect, and that to much of the pro- pointment of the dignitaries and perty now in the possession of the subordinate clergy, there being in Church, it can, even as a sect in- the gift of the king and government corporated with the state, exhibit no 1014 livings, and in that of the lay claims superior to those of others. nobility and gentry, no fewer than * And here,' he pointedly observes, 5,030, out of the 13,872 livings

it may not be improper to remark, which constitute the church of Enthat to a portion of the revenue of gland; that the secular autbority the establishment, the favoured party also interferes in the spiritual legishas no greater moral right than any lation and discipline of the church ; other Protestant denomination. We and finally, that it wants the essenrefer to those possessions, with tial characteristics of the Christian which the church was endowed by church, which are spirituality, unity, Roman Catholics in olden times, identity, and independence. The auand wbich produce little less than thor maintains many of his argu550.000! per annum, The donors ments with great energy and learnnents of thiense property from ing ; his language is always free Papist in dis nuity arises, cannot from vituperation and personality ; the system 012 been less well- and although on some religious as much as thathe successors of points we differ widely from his

doctrine, we nevertheless feel no hesitation in strongly recommending his pamphlet to the attention of the public, as a most clear and able exposure of the errors of the church of England.

ART. XI.-Manuscript Memorials. 8vo. pp. 208. London: Wilson. 1831.

manner.

THERE is a good deal of mind in these memorials, although it must be confessed that they are altogether a most heterogeneous mixture of verse and prose, of sound sense well expressed, and flighty nonsense let off in a madcap style, which has made us sometimes doubt whether the good and the bad be from the same pen. One of his most amusing chapters is an exposé of the errors and anachronisms of poets, painters, and others, which, though many of them have been noticed separately before, have not been hitherto brought together under one view, at least not in so entertaining a Thus he notices a painting observed by Burgoyne in Spain, in which Abraham is seen preparing to shoot Isaac with a pistol! While writing this sentence, we happened to see an engraving from Teniers of St. Peter denying Christ, in the front ground of which is a group of persons playing at cards made with paste-board! At Windsor there is a painting of Antonio Verrio, of Christ healing the sick, in the presence of the artist himself, Sir Godfrey Kneller and Bap May, surveyor of the works, in long periwigs! At Venice may be seen in the church of St. Zacharia, a picture of a virgin and child, to whom an angel is playing the fiddle! A thousand instances these errors might be adduced; but the author does not deal exclusively in these light matters. He qualifies them with fire-side reflec

tions, which are of a much more sober nature, and these again are set off by wild Irish tales, ghost stories, and portraits, and sketches in verse, which combine to make up an agreeable medley.

ART. XII.-Address of Earl Stanhope, President of the MedicoBotanical Society, for the Anniversary Meeting, Jan. 16, 1831. 8vo. pp. 28. London: 1831. WE are always pleased when the time arrives for the periodical delivery of Earl Stanhope's printed address to the Medico-Botanical Society, for the fact itself reminds us of the excellent example of honourable ambition and patient industry, which a nobleman, bred up in the lap of luxury, has set, not merely to his peers, but to every other individual in the country; and further, the contents of those orations generally consist of matter of a very interesting and valuable nature. The noble Earl commences by exhorting the members to be diligent in inquiring into the nature and medical virtues of plants, and he lays before them many happy illustrations which prove the value of earnestly adopting his advice. His lordship then proceeds to notice the most remarkable papers which have been presented during the year. Amongst these are the communications of Dr. Hancock, on the Juribali or Febrifuge Bark Tree, and one of a very important nature from that "distinguished" physician, as the Earl calls him, Dr. Ryan, of Hatton Garden, The paper of that gentleman contains many valuable facts and arguments, tending to show that the Ergot of Rye does not induce the labour of parturient women, but only accelerates it when begun. The noble speaker has some valuable ob

servations on the guaco plant, which has been proposed for the cure of hydrophobia. This discourse, taken altogether, is well worthy the attention of the public; it is free from all declamation, particularly from that elaborate verbosity beneath which is almost always disguised a woful paucity of ideas. It is plain and practical, full of curious facts and pertinent observations, and the whole is set off by a combination of ardour and sincerity in the pursuit, which qualities certainly cannot be more usefully employed than in urging so opulent and influential a nobleman to the study of science. We may mention that the question for the gold medal for the ensuing year (for which all persons are competent to be candidates,) is, "What is the vegetable substance which could be employed with success in the cure of hydrophobia?"

ART. XIII.—The Fossil Flora of Great Britain, or Figures and Descriptions of the Vegetable Remains found in a Fossil State in this Country. 8vo, Part I. By John Lindley, F. R. S. and G. S. and William Hutton, F. G.S. London: Ridgway. 1831.

WE hail this specimen of the Fossil Flora of Great Britain as another proof of the progress of that spirit of improvement, which has now happily insinuated itself into every department of education. If this be, as we conclude it is, a fair sample of the future work, we have no hesitation in saying that we think it will make many converts to the study of geology, and that in itself is a triumph to be envied. The curse of this, as indeed of all sciences, is that it first presents itself to the mind in a fantastic jargon, which at once strikes the student

with despair. Geology in particular is prejudiced by this affectation, and it is because this work offers, not difficult and grotesque names in the first instance, but very beautiful and striking resemblances of the natural object itself, that we are disposed to give it our most cordial snpport. This is effected by means of lithographic plates, which illustrated each specimen ; and from the care and neatness of the execution, they are calculated, quite as well as the originals themselves, to answer every possible end which the student or the curious in geological matters may have in view. The number of plates is ten in the present Part, but several of those plates have more than one figure. The management of the able and scientific editors is a sufficient guarantee for the value and accuracy of the work; and we are certain, when completed, that it will do more than most of the geological publications which have yet seen the light, to popularize that most interesting and truly important branch of knowledge.

ART. XIV.-A Discourse occasioned by the removal into Eternity of the Rev. John Clowes, M. A., &c. By the Rev. S. Noble. 8vo, p. 43. London, 1831. THIS discourse gives us a very interesting account of a very interesting person, whose history, for many reasons, will frequently deserve a solemn reference by his contemporaries and posterity. The Rev. Mr. Clowes was a regular and learned clergyman of the church of England, who, at an advanced period of his life, and whilst in tre full discharge of his duties as rector at Manchester, was induced to read the writings of Swedenborg.

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