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the streets of London and of Paris are crowded. Call over those millions by name, and ask them one by one, of what country they are: how many will you find, who from different parts of the earth come to inhabit these great cities, which afford the largest opportunities and the largest encouragement to virtue and vice? Some are drawn by ambition, and some are sent by duty; many resort thither to improve their minds, and many to improve {heir fortunes; others bring their beauty, and others their eloquence to market. Remove from hence, and go to the utmost extremities of the East or West: visit the barbarous nations pf Africa, or the inhospitable regions of the North; you will find no climate so bad, no country so savage, as not to have some people who come from abroad, and inhabit thole by choice.

Among numberless extravagances which pass through the minds of men, we may justly reckon for one that notion of a secret affection, independent of our reason, and superior to our reason, which we are supposed to have for our country; as if there were some physical virtue in every spot of ground, which necessarily produced this effect in every one born upon it.

Amor patrix rations valemiur omni.

This notion may have contributed to the security and grandeur of states. It has therefore been not unartfully cultivated, and the prejudice of education has been ■with care put on its side. Men have come in this cafe, as in many others, from believing that it ought to be so, to persuade others, and even to believe themselves that it is so.

Cannot hurt a rcjUSing Man.

Whatever is best is safest; lies cut of the reach of human power; can neither he given nor taken away. Such is this great r.nd beautiful work of nature, the world. Such is the mind of man, which contemplates and admires the world, whereof it makes the noblest part. These are inseparably ours, and as long as we remain in one, we ihall enjoy the other. Let us march therefore intrepidly wherever we are led by the course of human accidents. Wherever they lead us, on what coast so. ever we are thrown by them, we sliall not find ourselves absolutely strangers. We shall meet wuh men and women, creatures of the fame figure, endowed with the fame

faculties, and born under the fame laws of nature,

We shall fee the fame virtues and vices, flowing fromthesame principles, but varied in a thousand different and contrary modes, according to that infinite variety of laws and customs which is established for the same universal end, the preservation os society. We sliall feel the same revolution of seasons, and the fame fun and moon will guide the course of our year. The same azure vault, bespangled with stars, will be every where spread over our heads. There is no part of the world from whence we may not admire those planets which roll, like ours, in different orbits round the fame central fun; from whence we may not discover an object still more stupendous, that army of fixed, stars hung up in the immense space of the universe; innumerable suns, whole beams enlighten and cherish the unknown worlds which roll around them : and whilst I am ravished by such contemplations as these, whilst my soul is thus raised up to heaven, it imports me little what ground I tread upon. Boliiigbrokt.

§ 49. Tfce Love of Fame.

I can by no means agree with you in, thinking that the love of fame is a passion, which either reason or religion condemns. I confess, indeed, there are some who have represented it as inconsistent with both; and I remember, in particular, the excellent author of The Religion of Nature delineated, has treated it as highly irrational and absurd. As the passage sells in so thoroughly with your own turn of thought, you will have no objection, I imagine, to my quoting it at large and I give it you, at the fame time, as a very great authority on yourside. "In reality," fays that writer, "the man is not known ever the more "to posterity, because his name is tranff. mitted to them: He doth not live because "his name does. When it is said, Julius "Cæsar subdued Gaul, conquered Pompey, ',' etc. it is the fame thing as to fay, the "conqueror of Pompey was Julius Cæsar, '.* i. e. Cæsar and the conqueror of Pompey "is the fame thing; Cæsar is as much "known by one designation as by the "other. The amount then is only this: "that the conqueror of Pompey conquer'.' ed Pompey; or rather, since Pompey it "as little known now as Cæsar, somebody "conquered somebody. Such a poor busi'.' ness is this boasted immortality! and

« such "such is the thing called glory among us! "To discerning men this fame is mere air, "and what they despise, if not shun."

But surely "'twere to consider too cu'* riously," as Horatio fays to Hamlet, "to consider thus." For though fame with posterity should be, in the strict analysis of it, no other than what it is here described, a mere uninteresting proposition, amounting to nothing more thanthat somebody acted meritoriously; yet it would not necessarily follow, that true philosophy would banilh the desire of it from the human breast. For this passion may be (as most certainly it is) wisely implanted in our species, notwithstanding the corresponding object should in reality be very different from what it appears in imagination. Do pot many of our most refined and even contemplative pleasures owe their existence to our mistakes? It is but extending ([ will not fay, improving) some of our fenses to a higher degree of acuteness than we now possess them, to make the fairest views of nature, or the noblest productions of art, appear horrid and deformed. To fee things as they truly and in themselves are, would not always, perhaps, be of advantage to us in the intellectual world, any more than in the natural. But, after all, who shall certainly assure us, that the pleasure of virtuous fame dies with its possessor, and reaches not to a farther scene of existence? There is nothing, it should seem, either absurd or unphilolophical in supposing it possible at least, that the praises of the good and the judicious, that sweslest music to an honest ear in this world, may be echoed back to the mansions of the next: that the poet's description of fame may be literally true, and though she walks upon earth, (he may yet lift her head into heaven.

But can it be reasonable to extinguish a passion which nature has universally lighted up in the human bread, and which we constantly find to burn with molt strength and brightness in the noblest and best formed bosoms? Accordingly revelation is fe far from endeavouring (as you suppose) to eradicate the feed which nature hath thus deeply planted, that she rather seems, on the contrary, to cherish and forward its growth. To be exalted ivith honour, and to be had in emerlajling remembrance, are in the number of those encouragements which the Jewish dispensation offered to the virtuous; as the person from whom the sacred author of the Christian system received his

birth, is herself representedas rejoicing that all generations should call her blessed.

To be convinced of the great advantage of cherishing this high regard to posterity, this noble desire of an after-life in the breath of others, one need only look back upon the history of the ancient Greeks and Romans. What other principle was it, which produced that exalted strain of virtue in those days, that may well serve as a model to these? Was it not the consentient lam boHoruin, the incorrupta <vox bene judicantum (as Tully calls it) the concurrent approbation of the good, the uncorrupted applause of the wise, that animated their most generous pursuits?

To confess the truth, I have been ever inclined to think it a very dangerous attempt, to endeavour to lesten the motives of right conduct, or to raise any suspicion concerning their solidity. The tempers and dispositions of mankind arc so extremely different, that it seems necessary they should be called into action by a variety of incitements. Thus, while some are willing to wed virtue for her personal charms, others are engaged to take her for the fake of her expected dowry: and since her followers and admirers have so little hopes from her in present, it were pity, methinks, to reason them out of any imagined advantage in reversion.

Fitzosborne's Letters.

§ 50. Enthusiasm.

Though I rejoice in the hope of feeing enthusiasm expelled from her religious dominions, let me intreatyou to leave her in the undisturbed enjoyment of her civil possessions. To own the truth, I look upon enthusiasm, in all other points but that of religion, to be a very necessary turn of mind; as indeed it is a vein which nature seems to have marked with more or less strength in the tempers of most men. No matter what the object is, whether business, pleasures, or the sine arts; whoever pursues them to any purpose must do so con amore: and inamoratos, you know, of every kind, are all enthusiasts. There is indeed a certain heightening faculty which universally prevails through our species; and we are all of us, perhaps in our several favourite pursuits, pretty much in the circumstances of the renowned knight of La Mancha, when he attacked the barber's brazen bason, for Mambrino's golden helmet.

What is Tully's aliquid immensum in

snituinqac, Jinitumque, which he professes to aspire after in oratory, but a piece of true rhetorical Quixotism? Vet never, I will venture to atnxm, would he have glowed with so much eloquence, had he been warmed with less enthusiasm. 1 am persuaded indeed, that nothing great or glorious was ever performed, where this quality had not a principal concern; and as our passions add vigour to our actions, enthusiasm gives spirit to our passions. I might add too, that it even opens and enlarges our capacities. Accordingly I have been informed, that one of the great lights of the present age sever sits down to study, till he has raised his imagination by the power of music. For this purpose he has a band of instruments placed near his library, which play till he finds himself elevated to a proper height; upon which he gives a signal, and they instantly cease.

But those high conceits which are suggested by enthusiasm, contribute not only to the pleasure and perfection of the sine arts, but to most other effects of our action and industry. To strike this spirit therefore out of the human constitution, to reduce things to their precise philosophical standard, would be to check some of the main wheels of society, and to six' half the ■world in an useless apathy. For if enthusiasm did not add an imaginary value to most of the objects of our pursuit; if fancy did not give them their brightest colours, they would generally perhaps, wear an appearance too contemptible to excite desire;

Weary'd we (hou'd lie down in death,
This cheat rtt" lite would uke no more,

if yon thought fame an empry breath,

J riiiilib but a perjur'd whore. Prior.

In a word, this enthusiasm for which I am pleading, is a beneficent enchantress, who never exerts her magic but to our advantage, and only deals ^bout her friendly spells in order to raise imaginary beauties, . or to improve real one;. The worst that can be said of her is, that she is a kind deceiver, and an obliging flatterer.

Fitzojbornt's Lett.

§ JI. Frte-thinking, the/vafUiu Abusescommitted by the Vulgar in this Point.

The publication of lord Bolingbroke's posthumous works has given new life and spirit to free-thinking. We seem at present so be endeavouring to unlearn our catechism, with all' that we have been taught

about religion, in order to model our faith to the fashion of his lordship's system. We have now nothing to do, but to throw away our bibles, turn the churches into theatres, and rejoice that an act of parliament now in force gives us an opportunity of getting rid of the clergy by transportation. I was in hopes the extraordinary price of these volumes would have confined their influence to persons of quality. As they are placed above extreme indigence and absolute want of bread, their loose notions would have carried them no further than cheating at cards, or perhaps plundering their country: but if these opinions spread among the vulgar, we shalt be knocked down at noon-day in our streets, and nothing will go forward but robberies and murders.

The instances I have lately seen of freethinking in the lower part of the world, make me fear, they are going to be as fashionable and as wicked as their betters. I went the other night to the Robin Hood, where it is usual for the advocates against religion to assemble, and openly avow their infidelity. One of the questions for the night was, " Whether lord Bolingbroke had not done greater service to mankind by his writings, lhan the apostles or evangelists?" As this society is chiefly composed of lawyers clerks, petty tradesmen, and the lowest mechanics, I was at first surprized at such amazing erudition among them. Toland, Tindal, Collins, Chubb, and Mandeville, they seemed to have got by heart. A (hoe-maker harangued his five minutes upon the excellence of the tenets maintained by lord Bolingbroke: but I soon sound that his reading had not been extended beyond the idea of a Patriot King, which he had mistaken fora glorious system of free-thinking. I could not help smiling at another os the company, who took pains to stiew his disbelief of the gospel, by unsainting the apostles, and calling them by no other title than plain Paul or plain Peter. The proceedings of this society have indeed almost induced me to wish that (like the Roman Catholics) they were not permitted to read the bible, rather tnan they mould read it only to abuse it.

I have frequently heard many wise tradesmen settling the most important articles of our faith over a pint of beer. A baker took occasion from Canning's affair to maintain, in opposition to the scriptures, that man might live by bread alone, at least that woman might; " for else," said he, " how could the pirl have been sup

"ported "ported for a whole month by a few hard "crusts?" In answer to this, a barbersurgeon set forth the improbability of that story; and thence inferred, that it was impossible for our Saviour to have fasted forty days in the wilderness. I lately heard a midshipman swear that the bible was all a lie : for he had sailed round the world with lord Anson, and if there had been any Red Sea, he mult have met with it. I know a bricklayer, who while he was working by line and rule, and carefully laying one brick upon another, would argue with a fellowlabourer that the world was made by chance; and a cook, who thought more of his trade than his bible, in a dispute concerning the miracles, made a pleasant mistake about the nature of the first, and gravely asked his antagonist what he thought of the supper at Cana.

This affectation of free-thinking among the lower class of people, is at present happily confined to the men. On Sundays, while the husbands are toping at the alehouse, the good women their wives think it their duty to go to church, fay their prayers, bring home the text, and hear the children their chatechisin. But our polite ladies are, I fear, in their lives and conversations, little better than free-thinkers. Going to church, since it is now no longer the fashion to carry on intrigues there, is almost wholly laid aside: And I verily believe, that nothing but another earthquake can fill the churches with people of quality. The fair sex in general are too thoughtless to concern themselves in deep enquiries into matters of religion. It is sufficient, that they are taught to believe themselves angels. It would therefore be an ill compliment, while we talk of the heaven they bestow, to persuade them into the Mahometan notion, that they have no souls: though perhaps our fine gentlemen may imagine, that by convincing a lady that she has no foul, she will be less scrupulous about the disposal of her body.

The ridiculous notions maintained by free-thinkers in their writings, scarce deserve a serious refutation; and perhaps the best method of answering them would be to select from their works all the absurd and impracticable notions which they so stiffly maintain in order to evade the belief of the Christian religion. I shall here throw together a sew of their principal tenets, under the contradictory title of

The Unbeliever's Creed.
I believe that there is no God, but that

matter is God, and God is matter; and that it is no matter whether there is any God or no.

I believe also, that the world was not made; that the world made itself; that it had no beginning ; that it will last for ever, world without end.

I believe that a man is a beast, that the soul is the body, and the body is the foul; and that after death there is neither body nor soul.

I believe that there is no religion; that nutural religion is the only religion; and that all religion is unnatural.

I believe not in Moses; I believe in the first philosophy; I believe not the evangelists; I believe in Chubb, Collins, Toland, Tindal, Morgan, Mandeville, Wooliton, Hobbes, Shaftefbury ; I believe in lord Bolinghroke; I believe not St. Paul.

I believe not revelation; I believe in tradition; I believe in the talmud; I believe in the alcoran; 1 believe not the bible ;■ I believe in Socrates; I believe in Confucius; I believe in Sanconiaihon; I believe in Mahomet; I believe not in Christ.

Lastly; I believe in all unbelief.


§ 52. Fortune not to be trusted. The sudden invasion of an enemy overthrows such as are not on their guard; but they who foresee the war, and prepare themselves for it before it breaks out, stand without difficulty the first and the fiercest onset. I learned this important lesson long ago, and never trusted to fortune even while stie seemed to be at peace with me. The riches, the honours, th« reputation, and all the advantages which her treacherous indulgence poured upon me, I placed so that (he might snatch them away without giving me any disturbance. I kept a great interval between me and them. She took them, but she could not tear them from me. No man suffers by bad fortune, but he who has been deceived by good. If we grow fond of her gifts, fancy that they belong to us, and are perpetually to remain with us; if we lean upon them, and expect to be considered for them; we shall sink into all the bitterness of grief, as sooti as these false and transitory benefits pass away, as soon as our vain and childish minds, unfraught with solid pleasures, become destitute even of those which are imaginary. But, if we do not suffer ourselves to be transported with prosperity, neither shall we be reduced by adversity.

Our Our souls will be proof against the dangers of both these states: and having explored our strength, we shall be sure of it; for in the midst of felicity, we shall have tried how we can bear misfortune.

Her evils disarmed by Patience.

Banishment, with all its train of evils, is so far from being the cause of contempt, that he who bears up with an undaunted spirit against them, while so many are dejected by them, erects on his very misfortune a trophy to his honour: for such is the frame and temper of our minds, that nothing strikes us with greater admiration than a man intrepid in the midst of misfortunes. Of all ignominies, an ignominious death must be allowed to be the greatest; and yet where is the blasphemer who will presume to defame the death of Socrates! This faint entered the prison with the fame countenance with which he reduced thirty tyrants, and he took off ignominy from the place; for how could it be deemed a prison when Socrates was there? Aristides was led to execution in the fame city; all those who met the sad procession, cast their eyes to the ground, and with throbbing hearts bewailed, not the innocent man, but Justice herself, who was in him condemned. Yet there was a wretch found, for monsters are sometimes produced in contradiction to the ordinary rules of nature, who spit in his face as he passed along. Aristides wiped his cheek, smiled, turned to the magistrate, and said, "Admonish this man not to be so nasty for "the future."

Ignominy then can take no hold on virtue; for virtue is in every condition the fame, and challenges the fame respect. We applaud the world when (he prospers; and when she falls into adversity we applaud her. Like the temples of the gods, (he is venerable even in her ruins. After this, must it not appear a degree of madness to defer one moment acquiring the only arms capable of defending us against attacks, which at every moment we are exposed to? Our being miserable, or not miserable, when we fall into misfortunes, depends on the manner in which we have enjoyed prosperity. Bolingbroke.

§ 53. Delicacy constitutional,and often

Some people are subject to a certain delicacy of passion, which makes them extremely sensible to all the accidents of life,

and gives them a lively joy upon every prosperous event, as well as a piercing grief, when they meet with crosses and adversity. Favours and good offices easily engage their friendship, while the smallest injury provokes their resentment. Any honour or mark of distinction elevates them above measure; but they arc as sensibly touched with contempt. People of this character have, no doubt, much more lively enjoyments, as well as more pungent sorrows, than men of cool and sedate tempers: but L believe, when every thing it balanced, there is no one, who would not rather chuse to be of the latter character, were he entirely master of his own disposition. Good nr ill fortune is very little at our own disposal: and when a person who has this sensibility of temper meets with any misfortune, his sorrow or resentment takes entire posseflion of him, and deprives him of all relish in the common occurrences of life; the right enjoyment of which forms the greatest part of our happiness. Great pleasures are much less frequent than great pains; so that a sensible temper cannot meet with fewer trials in the former way than in the latter: uot to mention, that men of such lively passions are apt to be transported beyond all boundi of prudence and discretion, and to take false steps in the conduct of Hfc, which are often irretrievable.

Delicacy of Taste desirable.

There is a delicacy of taste observable in some men, which very much resembles this delicacy of passion, and produces the fame sensibility to beauty and deformity ot every kind, as that does to prosperity and adversity, obligations and injuries. When you present a poem or a picture to a man possessed of this talent, the delicacy of his feelings makes him to be touched very sensibly with every part of it; nor are the masterly strokes perceived with more exquisite relish and satisfaction, than the negligencies or absurdities with disgust and uneasiness. A polite and judicious conversation affords him the highest entertainment; rudeness or impertinence is as great a punishment to him. In short, delicacy of taste has the fame effect as delicacy of passion: it enlarges the sphere both of our happiness and misery, and makes us sensible to pains as well as pleasures which escape the rest of mankind.

1 believe, however, there is no one, who will not agree with me, that, notwithstand

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