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I cannot see. For besides the disgrace that must attend us, if anv of our interests are supinely disregarded, I have no small apprehensions of the consequence,(the Thebans affected as they are towards us, and the Phocians exhausted of their treasures) if Philip be left at full liberty to lead his armies into these territories, when his present enterprises are accomplished. If any one among you cm be so far immersed in indolence as to suiter this, he must chuse to be witness of the misery of his own country, rather than to hear of that which strangers suffer; and to seek assistants for himself, when it is now in his power to grant assistance to others. That this must be the consequence, if we do not exert ourselves on the present occasion, there can scarcely remain the least doubt among us.

But, as to the necessity os sending succours, this, it may be said, we are agreed in; this is our resolution. But how shall we be enabled? that is the point to be explained. Be not surprised, Athenians, if my sentiments on this occasion seem repugnant to the general fense of this assembly. Appoint magistrates for the inspection of your laws: not in order to enact any new laws; you have already a sufficient number ; but to r'peal those, whose ill effects you now experience. I mean the laws relating to the theatrical funds (thus openly I declare it) and some about the soldiery. By the first, the soldier's pay goes as theatrical expences to the useless and inactive; the others screen those from justice, who decline the service of the field, and thus damp the ardour of those disposed to serve us. When you have repealed these, and rendered it consistent with safety to advise you justly, then seek for some person to propose that decree, which you all are sensible the common good requires. But, till this be done, expect not that any man will urge your true interest, when, for urging your true interest, you repay him "with destruction. Ye will never find such zeal; especially since the consequence can be only this; he who offers his opinion, and moves for your concurrence, suffers some unmerited calamity; but your alFairs are not in the least advanced: nay, this additional inconvenience must arise, that for the suture it will appear more dangerous to advise you, than even at present. And the authors of these laws shruld also 'Li' the authors of their repeal. For it is rot jult that the public favour should be

bestowed on them who, in framing these laws, have greatly injured the community; and that the odium should fall on him, whose freedom and sincerity are of important service to us all. Until these regulati jns be made, you are not to think any man so great that he may violate these laws with impunity ; or so devoid of reason, as to plunge himself into open and foreseen destruction.

And be not ignorant of this, Athenians, that a decree is of no significance, unless attended with resolution and alacrity to execute it. For were decrees of themselves sufficient to engage you to perform your duty, could they even execute the things which they enact ; so many would not have been made to so little, or rather to no good purpose; nor would the insolence of Philip have had so long a date. For, if decrees can punish, he h:ith long since felt all their fury. But they have no such power: for, though proposing and resolving be first in order, yet, in so'ce and efficacy, action is superior. Let this then be your principal concern ; the others you cannot want; for you have men among you capable of advising, and you are of all people most acute in apprehending: now, let your interest direct you, and it will be in your power to be as remarkable for acting. What season indeed, what opportunity do vou wait for, more favourable than the present? Or when will you exert your vigour, if not noiv, my countrymen? Hath not this man seized all those places that were ours? Should he become master of this country too, must we not fink into the lowest state of infamy? Are not they whom we have promised tq assist, whenever they are engaged in war, now attacked themselves? Is he not our enemy ? Is he not in possession of our dominions? Is he not a barbarian? Is he not every base thing words can express? It we are insensible to all this, if we almost aid his designs ; heavens '. can we then ask to whom the consequences are owing? Yes, I know full well, we never will impute them to ourselves. Just as in the dangers of the field: not'one of those who fly will accuse himself; he will rather blame the general, or his fellow-soldiers: yet every sincle man that fled was accessary to the defeat. He who blames others might have maintained his own post; and, had every man maintained his, success might have ensued. Thus then, in the present case, is there a man whose counsel seems liable to objec

tion? Let the next rise, and not inveigh against him, but declare his own opinion. Doth another offer some more salutary counsel ? Pursue it, in the name of Heaven. "But then it is not pleasing." This is not the fault of the speaker, unless in that he hath neglected to express his affection in prayers and To pray is easy, Athenians; and in one petition may be collected as many instances of good fortune as we please. To determine justly, when afFairs are to be considered, is not so easy. But what is most useful sliouldever be preferred to that which is agreeable, where both cannot be obtained.

But if there be a man who will leave us the theatrical funds, and propose other subsidies for the service of the war, are we not rather to attend to him i I grant it, Athenians! if that man can be found. But I should account it wonderful, if it ever did, if it ever can happen to any man on earth, that while he lavishes his present possessions on unnecessary occasions, some future funds should be procured to supply hi3 real necessities. But such proposals find a powerful advocate in the breast of every hearer. So that nothing is so easy as to deceive one's self; for what we wish, that we readily believe ; but such expectations are oftentimes inconsistent with our affairs. On this occasion, therefore, let your affairs direct you; then will you be enabled to take the field; then you will have your full pay. And men, whose judgments are well directed, and whose souls are great, could not support the infamy which must attend them, if obliged to desert any of the operations of a war, from the want of noney.. They could not, after snatching up their arms, and marching against the Corinthians and Megareans, suffer Philip to inslave the states of Greece, through the Vant of provisions for their forces. I fay rot this wantonly, to raise the resentment of some among you. No; I am not so unhappily perverse as to study to bq hated, "lien no good purpose can be answered by it: but it is my opinion, that every honest Wker should prefer the interest of the «Jte to the favour of his hearers. This (1 am assured, and perhaps you need not be informed) was the principle which actuated the public conduct of those os cur ancestors who spoke in this assembly (men, »hom the present set of orators are ever ready to applaud, but whose example they b)' no means imitate) : such were Aristides, Ni.ias, tiie former Demosshcnes, and Pe

ricles. But since we have had speakers, who, before their public appearance, ask you, " What do you desire? What shall I "propose i How can I oblige you ?" The interest of our country hath been sacrificed to momentary pleasure, and popular savour. Thus have we been distressed; thus have these men risen to greatness, and you funk into disgrace.

And here let me intreat your attention to a summary account of the conduct of your ancestors, and of .your own. I shall mention but a few things, and these well known, (for, if you would pursue the way to happiness, you need not look abroad for leaders) our own countrymen point it out. These our ancestors, therefore, whom the orators never courtfd, never treated with that indulgence with which you are flattered, held the sovereignty of Greece with general con sent, five-and-forty years; deposited above ten thousand talents in our public treasury; kept the king of this country in that subjection, which a barbarian owes to Greeks; erected monuments of many and illustrious actions, which they themselves, atchieved by land and sea j in a word, are the only persons who have transmittedto posterity such glory as is superior to envy. Thus great do they appear in the affairs of Greece. Let us now view them within the city, both in their public and private conduct. And, first, the edifices which their administrations have given us, their decorations of our temples, and the offerings deposited by them, are so numerous and so magnificent, that all the efforts of posterity cannot exceed them. Then, in private life, so exemplary was their moderation, their adherence to the ancient manners so scrupulously exact, that if any of you ever discovered the houseof Aristides, or Miltiades, or any of the illustrious men of those times, he must know that it was not distinguished by the least extraordinary ipVndor. For they did not so conduct the public business as to aggrandise themselves; their sole great object was to exalt the state. And thus,by thei r faithful attachment to Greece, by their piety to the gods, and by. that equality which they maintained among themselves, they were raised (and no wonder) to the summit of prosperity.

Such was the state cf Athens at that time, when the men I have mentioned were in power. But what is your condition under these indulgent ministers who now direct us? Is it the lame, or nearly the some?

S s 2 Other

that they who are engaged in low and gro* veiling pursuits, can entertain great and generous sentiments. No! such as their employments are, so must their dispositions prove.—Aud now I call Heaven to witness, that it will not surprise me, if I suffer more by mentioning this your condition, than they who have involved you in it! Freedom of speech you do not allow on all occasions; and that you have now admitted it, excites my wonder.

But if you will at length be prevailed on to change your conduct; if you will take the field, and act worthy of Athenians; if these redundant sums which you receive at home be applied to the advancement of your affairs abroad; perhaps, my countrymen! perhaps some instance of consummate good fortune may attend you, and ye may become so happy as to despise those pittances, which are like the morsels that a physician allows his patient. For these do not restore his vigour, bus just keep him from dying. So, your distributions cannot serve any valuable purpose, but are just sufficient to divert your attention from all other things, and thus increase the indolence of every one among

Other things I shall pass over, though I might expatiate on them. Let it only be observed, that we are now, as you all fee, left without competitors; the Lacedemonians lost; the Thebans engaged at home; and not one of all the other states of consequence sufficient to dispute the sovereignty with u«. Yet, at a time when we might have enjoyed our own dominions in security, and been the umpires in all disputes abroad; our territories have been wrested from us; we have expended above one thousand five hundred talents to no purpose; the allies which we gained in war have been lost in time of peace; and to this degree of power have we raised an enemy against ourselves. (For let the man stand forth who can shew, whence Philip hath derived his greatness, if not from us.)

- Well! if these affairs have but an un"favourable aspect, yet those within the "city are much more flourishing than "ever." Where are the proofs of this? The walls which have been whitened? the ways we have repaired? the supplies of water, and such trifles ? Turn your eyes to the men, of whose administrations these are the fruits. Some of whom, from the lowest state of poverty, have arisen suddenly to affluence ; some from meanness to renown: others have made their own private houses much more magnificent than the public edifices. Just as the state hath fallen, their private fortunes have been raised.

And what cause can we assign for this? How is it that our affairs were once so Nourishing, and now in such disorder f Because formerly, the poeple dared to take tip arms themselves; were themselves masters of those in employment, disposers themselves of all emoluments: so that every citizen thought himself happy to derive honours and authority, and all advantages whatever from the people. But now, on the contrary, favours are all dispensed, affairs all transacted by the ministers { while yoa, quite enervated, robbed of your riches, your allies, stand in the mean rank of servants and assistants: happy if these men grant you the theatrical appointments, and send you scraps of the public meal. And, what is of all most sordid, vou hold yourselves obliged to them for that which is your own, while they confine you within these walls, lead you on frenily to their purposes, and soothe and tame you to obedience,

But I

shall be asked, " What then! is "it your opinion that these sums should "pay our army ?"—And besides this, that the state should be regulated in such a manner, that eveiy one may have his share of public business, and approve himself air useful citizen, on what occasion soever his aid may be required. Is it in his power to live in peace? He will live here with greater dignity, while these supplies prevent him from being tempted by indigenes to any thing dishonourable Js he called forth by an emergency like the present i Let him discharge that sacred duty which he owes to his country, by applying these sums to his support in the field. Is there a man among you past the age of service f Let him, by inspecting and conducting the public business, regularly merit his share of the distributions which he now receives, without any duty er.joined, or any return, made to the community. And thus, with scarcely any alteration, cither of abolishing or innovating, all irregularities are removed, and the state completely settled; by appointing one general regulation, which shall entitle our citizens to receive, and at the fame time oblige them to take

■ . -7 arms, to administer jastice, to act in all

Nor is it possible,- cases as their time of life, and our affairs


Rquire. But it never hath, nor could it have been moved by me, that the rewards as the diligent and active should be bestowed on the useless citizen: or that you should sit here, supine, languid, and irresolute, listening to the exploits of some general's foreign troops (for thus it is at present—not that I would rest :ct on him who serves you in any instance. But you yourselves, Athenians, should perform those services, for which you heap honours upon others, and not recede from that illustrious rank of virtue, the price of all the glorious toils of your ancestors, and by them bequeathed to you.

Thus have I laid before you the chief points in which I think you interested. It is your part to embrace that opinion, which the welfare of the state in general, and that of every single member, recommends -to your acceptance. Ltlaud.

\ 4. The third Olynthiac Oration: pronounced in the same year.


The preceding oration had no further eiFect upon the Athenians, than to prevail on them to fend orders to Charidemus, who commanded for them at the Hellespont, to make an attempt to relieve Olynthus. He accordingly led some forces into Chal•cis, which, in conjunction with the forces of Olynthus, ravaged Pallene, a peninsula of Macedon, towards Thrace and Bottia, a country on the confines of Chalcis, which among other towns contained Pella, the capital of Macedon.

But these attempts could not divert Philip from his resolution of reducing Olynthus, which he had now publicly avowed. The Olynthians, therefore, found it necessary to have once more recourse to Athens: and to request that they would fend troops, composed of citizens, animated with a sincere ardor for their interest, their own glory, and the common cause.

Demosthenes, in the following oration, insists on the importance of saving Olynthus; alarms his hearers with the apprehension of the war, which actually threatened Attica, and even the capital; urges the necessity of personal service; and returns to his charge of the misapplication of the public money ; but in such a manner,

as fheweth, that his former remon» slrances had not the desired effect.

I AM persuaded, Athenians! that you would account it less valuable to poi ess the greatest riches, than to have the true interest of the state on this emergervey clearly laid before you. It is your part, therefore, readily and chearfully to attend to all w ho are disposed to offer their opinions. For vour regards need not be confined to those, whose counsels are the effect of premeditation: it is your good fortune to have men among you, who can at once suggest many points of moment. From opinions, therefore, of every kind, you may easily chuse that most conducive to your interest.

And now, Athenians, the present juncture calls upon us; we almost hear its voice, declaring loudly, that you yourselves must engage in these affairs, if you have the least attention to your own security. You entertain I know not what sentiments, on this occasion: my opinion is, that the reinforcements should be instantly decreed; that they should be raised with all possible expedition; that so our succours may ba sent from this city, and all former inconveniencies be avoided ; and that you should send ambassadors to notify these things, and to secure our interests by their presence. For as he is a man of consummate policy, complete in the art of turning every incident to his own advantage there is the utmost reason to fear, that partly by concessions, where they may be seasonable; partly by menaces, (and his menaces may be believed) and partly by rendering us' and our ablcnci: suspected ; he may tear from us something of the last importance, and force it into his own service.

Those very circumstances, however, which contribute to the power of Philip, are happily the most favourable to us. For that uncontrolled command, with which he governs all transactions public and secret; his intire direction of his army, as their leader, their sovereign, and their treasurer; and his diligence, in giving life to every part of it, by his presence; these things greatly contribute to carrying on a war with expedition and success, but are powerful obstacles to that accommodation, which he would gladly make with the Olynthians. For the Olynthians see plainly, that they do not now fight for glory, or for part of their territory, but to defend their state from dissolution and flaS s 3 very. very. ■ They know how he rewarded those traitors of Amphipolis who made him master of that city; and those of Pydna, who opened t'leir gates to him. In a word, free states, I think, mull ever look with suspicion on an absolute monarchy: but a neighbouring monarchy must double their apprehensions.

Convinced of what hath now been offered, and possessed with every other just and worthy sentiment; you must be resolved, Athenians! you must exert your spirit; you must ripply to the war, now,-if ever; your, your persons, your whole powers, are now demanded. There is no excuse, no pretence left, for declining the performance of your duty. For that which you were all e\er urging loudly, that the G!ynthiarts should be engaged in a war with Philip, hath now happened of itself; and this in a manner molt agreeable to our interest.- For, if they had entered into this war at our persuasion, they must have been precarious allies, without steadiness or resolution: but, as their private injuries have made them enemies to Philip, it is probable that enmity will be lasting, both on account of what they fear, and what they have already suffered. My countrymen! let not so favourable an opportunity escape you: do not repeat that error which hath been so often fatal to you. For when, at our return from assisting the Eubœans, Hierax, and Stratocles, citizens of Amphipolis, mounted this gallery, and pressed you to fend out your navy, and to take their city under your protection; had we discovered that resolution in our own cause, which we exerted lor the safety of F.ubœa; then had Amphipolis been yours; and all those difficulties had been avoided, in which you have been since involved. Again, when we received advice of the_sieges of Pydna, Potid;ea, Methone, Pegasa*, and other places, (for I would not detain you with a particular recital) had we ourselves marched vi ith a due spirit and alacrity to the relief of the first of these cities, we sliould now find much more compliance, much more humility in Philip. But by llill neglecting the pn sent, and imagining our suture interests will not demand our care: we have Bfgiandized our enemy, we have raised hiiu to a degree of eminence, greater than «ny king of Macedon hath ever yet enjoyed.—Now we have another opportun ty. That which the Olynthian?, of themselves, present to the state: one no less, tLari any of the former.

And, in my opinion, Athenians! if a man were to bring the dealings of the gods towards us to a fair account, though many things might appear not quite agreeable to our wiflies, yet he would acknowledge that we had been highly favoured by them; and with great reason: for that many places have been lost in the course of war, is truly to be charged to our own weak conduct. Put that the difficulties, arisen from hence, have not long affectiJ Js ; and that an alliance now presents itself to remove them, if we are disposed to make the just use of it; this I cannot but ascribe to the divine goodness. But the fame thing happens in th's cafe, as in the use of riches. If a man be careful to save those he hath acquired, he readily acknowledges the kindness of fortune: but if by his imprudence they be once loll; with them he also loses the fenie of gratitude. So in political affairs, they who neglect to improve ti.cir opportunities forget the savours which the gods h„ve.besto\ved; for it is the ultimate event which generally determines mens judgment of every thing precedent. And, therefore, all affairs hereafter should engige your strictest care; that, by correcting our errors, we may wipe off the inglorious stain of past actions. But should we be deaf to these men too, and should he be suffered to subvert Olynthus; fay, what can prevent him from marching his forces into whatever territory he pleases.

Is there not a man among you, Athenians! who reflects by what steps, Philip, from a beginning Ib inconsiderable, hath mounted to this height of power I Fiist, he took Amphipolis: then he became master of Pydna; then Potidæa fell; then Methone: then came his inroad into Thessaly: after this, having disposed affairs at Pherse, at Pegasæ, at Magnesia, intirely as he pleased, he marched into Thrace. Here, while engaged in expelling some, and establishing other princes, he fell sick. Again, recovering, he never turned a moment, from his course to ease or indulgence, but instantly attacked the Olynthians. His expeditions against the Illyrians, the Pæonians, against Arymbas, I pals all over.— But I may be asked, why this recital, now? That you may know and see your own error, in ever neglecting some part of your affairs, as if beneath your regard: and that active spirit with which Philip pursueth his designs: which ever fires him; and which never can permit him to rest satisfied with those things he hath a|rcady


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