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near the surface of the earth ; but, as preceding convulsions of nature had served to bring it very deep in many places, and covered it with many different strata, we are indebted to subsequent convulsions for having brought within our view the extremities of its veins, so as to lead us to penetrate the earth in search of it. I visited last summer a large coal mine at Whitehaven, in Cumberland; and, in following the vein and descending by degrees towards the sea, I

penetrated below the ocean, where the level of its surface was more than eight hundred fathoms above my head, and the miners assured me, that their works extended some miles beyond the place where I then was, continually and gradually descending under the sea. The slate, which forms the roof of this coal mine, is impressed in many places with the figures of leaves and branches of fern, which undoubtedly grew at the surface when the slate was in the state of sand on the banks of the sea. Thus it appears, that this vein of coal has suffered a prodigious settlement. —



Concerning the Eastern Boundary of the United States.

Philadelphia, 8 April, 1790.* SIR, I received your letter of the 31st of last past, relating to encroachments made on the eastern limits of the United States by settlers under the British government, pretending that it is the western, and not the eastern river of the Bay of Passamaquoddy which was designated by the name of St. Croix, in the

This letter is dated only nine days before Dr. Franklin's death.

treaty of peace with that nation; and requesting of me to communicate any facts which smy memory or papers may enable me to recollect, and which may indicate the true river, which the commissioners on both sides had in their view, to establish as the boundary between the two nations.

Your letter found me under a severe fit of my malady, which prevented my answering it sooner, or attending, indeed, to any kind of business. I now can assure you, that I am perfectly clear in the remembrance that the map we used in tracing the boundary, was brought to the treaty by the commissioners from England, and that it was the same that was published by Mitchell above twenty years before. Having a copy of that map by me in loose sheets, I send you that sheet which contains the Bay of Passamaquoddy, where you will see that part of the boundary traced. I remember, too, that in that part of the boundary we relied much on the opinion of Mr. Adams, who had been concerned in some former disputes concerning those territories. I think, therefore, that you may obtain still further light from him.

That the map we used was Mitchell's map, Congress were acquainted at the time, by a letter to their Secretary for Foreign Affairs, which I suppose may be found upon their files. I have the honor to be, &c.,



No. I.



This list comprises the titles of Franklin's miscellaneous writings. They are arranged under the years in which they were written or printed. In sorne instances the dates could not be ascertained with precision. To the titles of such pieces this mark (1) is prefixed. In a few of these instances the nature of the subject, or the matter, points nearly to the time; in others the arrangement is conjectural. Articles not contained in any previous edition of the author's works are denoted by a (*); and to such as have not before been printed this mark () is prefixed.



Vol. Page. Journal of a Voyage from London to Philadelphia

I. 547 1728. Articles of Belief and Acts of Religion

II. 1 Rules for a Club established for Mutual Improvement II. 9

1729. The Busy Body

II. 13 * A Modest Inquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency

II. 253

1730. Dialogue Concerning Virtue and Pleasure

II. 46 Second Dialogue on the same Subject

II. 51 Public Men

II. 57

1732. tNew Translation of the Lord's Prayer

I. 77 7 * Lecture on the Providence of God in the Government of the World

II. 525 * Letter from Anthony Afterwit

II. 532 VOL. X.




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Vol. Page. * Letter from Celia Single

II. 536 * On Scandal

II. 539 * A Case of Casuistry

II. 545 * Miscellaneous Observations

II. 549 * Proposals and Queries for the Consideration of the Junto

II. 551 1735. Self-denial not the Essence of Virtue

II. 63 On the Usefulness of the Mathematics

II. 66 On True Happiness

II. 70 1736. On Discoveries

II. 73 The Waste of Life

II. 77 Necessary Hints to those that would be Rich

II. 80 + The Way to make Money Plenty in every Man's Pocket.

II. 82 * Address to the Readers of Poor Richard's Almanac II. 85 On Government

II. 278 1737. On Freedom of Speech and the Press

II. 285 Causes of Earthquakes.

. VI.

1 1742. Rivalship in Almanac-Making

II. 83 Rules of Health

II. 86



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1743. Proposal for promoting Useful Knowledge among the British Plantations in America

VI. 14

1741. * Organization of a Philosophical Society

VI. 28 An Account of the new-invented Pennsylvania Fireplaces

VI. 34 1745. On Perspiration and Absorption, and the Motion of Blood in the Heart.

VI. 65 I On the Circulation of the Blood

. VI. 70

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Vol. Page. I Conjecture as to the Cause why Ships in crossing the

Atlantic have longer Passages in sailing westward,
than in sailing eastward

VI. 74 1747. Plain Truth; or Serious Considerations on the pres

ent State of the City of Philadelphia and Province
of Pennsylvania

. III. 1 | Northeast Storms; Origin of Springs in Mountains ;

petrified Shells in the Appalachian Mountains ;
Observations on a Tariff

VI. 79 Experiments on the Culture of Grass

VI. 83 On the Vis Inertiæ of Matter

VI. 87 + IA Conjecture as to the Cause of the Heat of the

Blood in Health, and of the Cold and Hot Fits of
some Fevers

VI. 97 First Letter to Peter Collinson on the Subject of Elec

tricity; Wonderful Effect of Points ; Positive and
Negative Electricity

V. 181 Observations on the Leyden Bottle, with Experiments V. 189

1748. Advice to a Young Tradesman

II. 87 Further Experiments on Electricity

V. 196 Observations and Suppositions towards forming a new

Hypothesis for explaining the several Phenomena
of Thunder-gusts

V. 211 1749. * Proposals relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania

I. 569 Sketch of an English School, for the Consideration of

the Trustees of the Philadelphia Academy II. 125 Magical Square of Squares

VI. 100 Magical Circle

VI. 104

1750. Electrical Experiments; Effect of Lightning on the Needle of Compasses explained

V. 223 Opinions and Conjectures concerning the Properties

and Effects of the Electrical Matter, and the

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