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near the surface of the earth ; but, as preceding convulsions of nature had served to bring it very deep in many places, and covered it with many different strata, we are indebted to subsequent convulsions for having brought within our view the extremities of its veins, so as to lead us to penetrate the earth in search of it. I visited last summer a large coal mine at Whitehaven, in Cumberland; and, in following the vein and descending by degrees towards the sea, I
penetrated below the ocean, where the level of its surface was more than eight hundred fathoms above my head, and the miners assured me, that their works extended some miles beyond the place where I then was, continually and gradually descending under the sea. The slate, which forms the roof of this coal mine, is impressed in many places with the figures of leaves and branches of fern, which undoubtedly grew at the surface when the slate was in the state of sand on the banks of the sea. Thus it appears, that this vein of coal has suffered a prodigious settlement. —
TO THOMAS JEFFERSON.
Concerning the Eastern Boundary of the United States.
Philadelphia, 8 April, 1790.* SIR, I received your letter of the 31st of last past, relating to encroachments made on the eastern limits of the United States by settlers under the British government, pretending that it is the western, and not the eastern river of the Bay of Passamaquoddy which was designated by the name of St. Croix, in the
This letter is dated only nine days before Dr. Franklin's death.
treaty of peace with that nation; and requesting of me to communicate any facts which smy memory or papers may enable me to recollect, and which may indicate the true river, which the commissioners on both sides had in their view, to establish as the boundary between the two nations.
Your letter found me under a severe fit of my malady, which prevented my answering it sooner, or attending, indeed, to any kind of business. I now can assure you, that I am perfectly clear in the remembrance that the map we used in tracing the boundary, was brought to the treaty by the commissioners from England, and that it was the same that was published by Mitchell above twenty years before. Having a copy of that map by me in loose sheets, I send you that sheet which contains the Bay of Passamaquoddy, where you will see that part of the boundary traced. I remember, too, that in that part of the boundary we relied much on the opinion of Mr. Adams, who had been concerned in some former disputes concerning those territories. I think, therefore, that you may obtain still further light from him.
That the map we used was Mitchell's map, Congress were acquainted at the time, by a letter to their Secretary for Foreign Affairs, which I suppose may be found upon their files. I have the honor to be, &c.,
LIST OF THE AUTHOR'S WRITINGS, CHRONOLOGICALLY
This list comprises the titles of Franklin's miscellaneous writings. They are arranged under the years in which they were written or printed. In sorne instances the dates could not be ascertained with precision. To the titles of such pieces this mark (1) is prefixed. In a few of these instances the nature of the subject, or the matter, points nearly to the time; in others the arrangement is conjectural. Articles not contained in any previous edition of the author's works are denoted by a (*); and to such as have not before been printed this mark () is prefixed.
Vol. Page. Journal of a Voyage from London to Philadelphia
I. 547 1728. Articles of Belief and Acts of Religion
II. 1 Rules for a Club established for Mutual Improvement II. 9
1729. The Busy Body
II. 13 * A Modest Inquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency
1730. Dialogue Concerning Virtue and Pleasure
II. 46 Second Dialogue on the same Subject
II. 51 Public Men
1732. tNew Translation of the Lord's Prayer
I. 77 7 * Lecture on the Providence of God in the Government of the World
II. 525 * Letter from Anthony Afterwit
II. 532 VOL. X.
Vol. Page. * Letter from Celia Single
II. 536 * On Scandal
II. 539 * A Case of Casuistry
II. 545 * Miscellaneous Observations
II. 549 * Proposals and Queries for the Consideration of the Junto
II. 551 1735. Self-denial not the Essence of Virtue
II. 63 On the Usefulness of the Mathematics
II. 66 On True Happiness
II. 70 1736. On Discoveries
II. 73 The Waste of Life
II. 77 Necessary Hints to those that would be Rich
II. 80 + The Way to make Money Plenty in every Man's Pocket.
II. 82 * Address to the Readers of Poor Richard's Almanac II. 85 On Government
II. 278 1737. On Freedom of Speech and the Press
II. 285 Causes of Earthquakes.
1 1742. Rivalship in Almanac-Making
II. 83 Rules of Health
1743. Proposal for promoting Useful Knowledge among the British Plantations in America
1741. * Organization of a Philosophical Society
VI. 28 An Account of the new-invented Pennsylvania Fireplaces
VI. 34 1745. On Perspiration and Absorption, and the Motion of Blood in the Heart.
VI. 65 I On the Circulation of the Blood
. VI. 70
Vol. Page. I Conjecture as to the Cause why Ships in crossing the
Atlantic have longer Passages in sailing westward,
VI. 74 1747. Plain Truth; or Serious Considerations on the pres
ent State of the City of Philadelphia and Province
. III. 1 | Northeast Storms; Origin of Springs in Mountains ;
petrified Shells in the Appalachian Mountains ;
VI. 79 Experiments on the Culture of Grass
VI. 83 On the Vis Inertiæ of Matter
VI. 87 + IA Conjecture as to the Cause of the Heat of the
Blood in Health, and of the Cold and Hot Fits of
VI. 97 First Letter to Peter Collinson on the Subject of Elec
tricity; Wonderful Effect of Points ; Positive and
V. 181 Observations on the Leyden Bottle, with Experiments V. 189
1748. Advice to a Young Tradesman
II. 87 Further Experiments on Electricity
V. 196 Observations and Suppositions towards forming a new
Hypothesis for explaining the several Phenomena
V. 211 1749. * Proposals relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania
I. 569 Sketch of an English School, for the Consideration of
the Trustees of the Philadelphia Academy II. 125 Magical Square of Squares
VI. 100 Magical Circle
1750. Electrical Experiments; Effect of Lightning on the Needle of Compasses explained
V. 223 Opinions and Conjectures concerning the Properties
and Effects of the Electrical Matter, and the