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near the surface of the earth ; but, as preceding convulsions of nature had served to bring it very deep in many places, and covered it with many different strata, we are indebted to subsequent convulsions for having brought within our view the extremities of its veins, so as to lead us to penetrate the earth in search of it. I visited last summer a large coal mine at Whitehaven, in Cumberland; and, in following the vein and descending by degrees towards the sea, I penetrated below the ocean, where the level of its surface was more than eight hundred fathoms above my head, and the miners assured me, that their works extended some miles beyond the place where I then was, continually and gradually descending under the sea. The slate, which forms the roof of this coal mine, is impressed in many places with the figures of leaves and branches of fern, which undoubtedly grew at the surface when the slate was in the state of sand on the banks of the sea. Thus it appears, that this vein of coal has suffered a prodigious settlement.
TO THOMAS JEFFERSON.
Concerning the Eastern Boundary of the United States.
Philadelphia, 8 April, 1790.* SIR, I received your letter of the 31st of last past, relating to encroachments made on the eastern limits of the United States by settlers under the British government, pretending that it is the western, and not the eastern river of the Bay of Passamaquoddy which was designated by the name of St. Croix, in the
* This letter is dated only nine days before Dr. Franklin's death.
treaty of peace with that nation; and requesting of me to communicate any facts which my memory or papers may enable me to recollect, and which may ', indicate the true river, which the commissioners on both sides had in their view, to establish as the boundary between the two nations.
Your letter found me under a severe fit of my malady, which prevented my answering it sooner, or attending, indeed, to any kind of business. I now can assure you, that I am perfectly clear in the remembrance that the map we used in tracing the boundary, was brought to the treaty by the commissioners from England, and that it was the same that was published by Mitchell above twenty years before. Having a copy of that map by me in loose sheets, I send you that sheet which contains the Bay of Passamaquoddy, where you will see that part of the boundary traced. I remember, too, that in that part of the boundary we relied much on the opinion of Mr. Adams, who had been concerned in some former disputes concerning those territories. I think, therefore, that you may obtain still further light from him.
That the map we used was Mitchell's map, Congress were acquainted at the time, by a letter to their Secretary for Foreign Affairs, which I suppose may be found upon their files. I have the honor to be, &c.,
LIST OF THE AUTHOR'S WRITINGS, CHRONOLOGICALLY
This list comprises the titles of Franklin's miscellaneous writings. They are arranged under the years in which they were written or printed. In some instances the dates could not be ascertained with precision, To the titles of such pieces this mark (t) is prefixed. In a few of these instances the nature of the subject, or the matter, points nearly to the time; in others the arrangement is conjectural. Articles not contained in any previous edition of the author's works are denoted by a ); and to such as have not before been printed this mark (t) is prefixed.
Vol. Page. Journal of a Voyage from London to Philadelphia I. 547
1728. Articles of Belief and Acts of Religion . . II. 1 Rules for a Club established for Mutual Improvement II. 9
. 1729. The Busy Body .
. II. 13 * A Modest Inquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency . . . . . II. 253
1730. Dialogue Concerning Virtue and Pleasure . . II. 46 Second Dialogue on the same Subject
II. 51 Public Men . . . . . . . II. 57
1732. ti New Translation of the Lord's Prayer . . I. 77 + * Lecture on the Providence of God in the Governin ment of the World
II. 525 *Letter from Anthony Afterwit
. II. 532 VOL. X.
Vol. Page * Letter from Celia Single
. II. 536 * On Scandal . .
. II. 539 * A Case of Casuistry . . .
. II. 545 * Miscellaneous Observations
. II. 549 * Proposals and Queries for the Consideration of the Junto ·
11. 551 1735. Self-denial not the Essence of Virtue
. II. 63 On the Usefulness of the Mathematics On True Happiness . . . . . .
1736. On Discoveries . . . . . . . The Waste of Life Necessary Hints to those that would be Rich . II. 80 + The Way to make Money Plenty in every Man's
Pocket . . . . . . . . . II. 82 * Address to the Readers of Poor Richard's Almanac II. 85 On Government . . . . . . . II.
1737. On Freedom of Speech and the Press . . . II. 285 Causes of Earthquakes
. . . . VI.
Rivalship in Almanac-Making . . . . .
British Plantations in America . . . .
promotions in "
174 Society pivania
*Organization of a Philosophical Society . . . VI. 28 An Account of the new-invented Pennsylvania Fireplaces . . . . . . . . VI.
1745. I On Perspiration and Absorption, and the Motion of
Blood in the Heart . . . . . . VI. 65 On the Circulation of the Blood . . . . VI. 70
ty of Philadelphins on the pres
I Northe Pennsylvania
Vol. Page Conjecture as to the Cause why Ships in crossing the
Atlantic have longer Passages in sailing westward,
ent State of the City of Philadelphia and Province
of Pennsylvania . . . . . . III. 1 I Northeast Storms; Origin of Springs in Mountains ;
petrified Shells in the Appalachian Mountains;
. . .
VI. 79 | Experiments on the Culture of Grass . . . VI. 83 On the Vis Inertiæ of Matter. .
.VI +IA Conjecture as to the Cause of the Heat of the
Blood in Health, and of the Cold and Hot Fits of
some Fevers . . . . . . VI. 97 First Letter to Peter Collinson on the Subject of Elec
tricity; Wonderful Effect of Points ; Positive and
. . . . . V. 181 Observations on the Leyden Bottle, with Experiments V. 189
Hypothesis for explaining the several Phenomena
. . . I. 569 Sketch of an English School, for the Consideration of
the Trustees of the Philadelphia Academy . II. 125 Magical Square of Squares . . Magical Circle . . . .
. . VI. 104
1750. Electrical Experiments; Effect of Lightning on the
Needle of Compasses explained . . . V. 223 Opinions and Conjectures concerning the Properties
and Effects of the Electrical Matter, and the
. VI. 100