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comprehend the arrangement of his cases; but the reduction of the number of pieces by the roots of words, and their different terminations, is extremely ingenious; and I like much the idea of cementing the letters, instead of casting words or syllables, which I formerly attempted, and succeeded in having invented a mould, and method by which I could in a few minutes, form a matrice, and adjust it, of any word in any fount at pleasure, and proceed to cast from it.
I send enclosed a specimen of some of my terminations, and would willingly instruct Mr. Johnson in the method if he desired it; but he has a better. He mentions some improvements that have been proposed, but takes no notice of one published here at Paris, i n 1776; so I suppose he has neither seen nor heard of it. It is in a quarto pamphlet, entitled, "JYouveau Systeme Typographiqiie, ou Moyen de diminuer, de Moitie, dans toutes les Imprimeries de VEurope, le Travail et les Frais de Composition, de Correction, de Distribution, decouvert en 1774, par Madame de * * *. Frustra fit per plura quod potest fieri per pauciora. A Paris, de rimprimerie Roya1e, MDCCLXXVI." It is dedicated to the King, who was at the expense of the experiments. Two commissaries were named to examine and render an account of them; they were M. Desmarets, of the Academy of Sciences, and M. Barbou, an eminent printer. Their report concludes thus; "Nous nous contenterons de dire ici, que M. de St. Paul a rempli les engagemens qu'il avoit contractus avec le Gouvernement; que ses experiences prqjetees ont et6 conduites avec beaucoup de methode et d'intelligence de sa part; et que par des calculs longs et pcnibles, qui sont le fruit d'un grand nombre de combinaisons raisonnees, il en a deduit plusieurs resultats qui m£ritent d'etre proposes aux artistes, et qui nous paroissent propres a eclairer la pratique de l'imprimerie actuelle, et a en abreger certainement les procedees. Son projet ne peut que gagner aux contradictions qu'il essuiera sans doute, de la part des gens de Part. A Paris, le 8 Janvier, 1776." The pamphlet consists of sixty-six pages, containing a number of tables of words and parts of words, explanations of those tables, calculations, answers to objections, &,c. I will endeavour to get one to send you if you desire it; mine is bound up with others in a volume.
It was after seeing this piece, that I cast the syllables I send you a sample of. I have not heard, that any of the printers here make at present the least use of the invention of Madame de * * *. You will observe, that it pretended only to lessen the work by one half; Mr. Johnson's method lessens it three fourths. I should be glad to know with what the letters are cemented. I think cementing better than casting them together, because if one letter happens to be battered, it may be taken away and another cemented in its place. I received no letter with the pamphlet.* I am, Sir, &c.
• The logographic method of printing was tried by a most diligent and laborious series of experiments, at an enormous expense, by Mr. Walter, who knew nothing of the art himself. Several works were printed, as was the newspaper called the TKmes originally, by that method. But it really failed; some little time was saved in the compositors' part, but it was lost in distribution. The casting was also triple the cost of single types; for, even for the logography, single letters were first cast with one half the shank of the letter shaped, in carpenters' language, like a tenon; those were composed into words or parts of words, and put into a common matrix, so that the part resembling the mortise should be cast round them; when they were dressed like common types. It was an art travelling backward. The expense was enormous, and it failed. It was exactly the same method as that pursued in France. — Duane.
VOl. X. 11
TO BENJAMIN WEBB.
J[ new Method of repaying Money lent.
Pussy, 22 April, 1784.
Dear Sir, I received yours of the 15th instant, and the. memorial it enclosed. The account they give of your situation grieves me. I send you herewith a bill for ten louis d'ors. I do not pretend to give such a sum; I only lend it to you. When you shall return to your country with a good character, you cannot fail of getting into some business, that will in time enable you to pay all your debts. In that case, when you meet with another honest man in similar distress, you must pay me by lending this sum to him; enjoining him to discharge the debt by a like operation, when he shall be able, and shall meet with such another opportunity. 1 hope it may thus go through many hands, before it meets with a knave that will stop its progress. This is a trick of mine for doing a deal of good with a little money. I am not rich enough to afford much in good works, and so am obliged to be cunning and make the most of a little. With best wishes for the success of your memorial, and your future prosperity, I am, dear Sir, your most obedient servant,
TO SAMUEL MATHER.
Cotton Mather. — Biographical Anecdotes.
Pwsy, 12 May, 1784
Reverend Sir, I received your kind letter, with your excellent advice to the people of the United States, which I read
with great pleasure, and hope it will be duly regarded. Such writings, though they may be lightly passed over by many readers, yet, if they make a deep impression on one active mind in a hundred, the effects may be considerable. Permit me to mention one little instance, which, though it relates to myself, will not be quite uninteresting to you. When I was a boy, I met with a book, entitled "Essays to do Good," which I think was written by your father.* It had been so little regarded by a former possessor, that several leaves of it were torn out; but the remainder gave me such a turn of thinking, as to have an influence on my conduct through life; for I have always set a greater value on the character of a doer of good, than on any other kind of reputation; and if I have been, as you seem to think, a useful citizen, the public owes the advantage of it to that book.
You mention your being in your seventy-eighth year; I am in my seventy-ninth; we are grown old together. It is now more than sixty years since I left Boston, but I remember well both your father and grandfather, having heard them both in the pulpit, and seen them in their houses. The last time I saw your father was in the beginning of 1724, when I visited him after my first trip to Pennsylvania. He received me in his library, and on my taking leave showed me a shorter way out of the house through a narrow passage, which was crossed by a beam over head. We were still talking as I withdrew, he accompanying me behind, and I turning partly towards him, when he said hastily, "Stoop, stoop!" I did not understand him, till I felt my head hit against the beam. He was a man that never missed any occasion of giving instruction, and upon this he said to me, "You are young, and have the world be/ore you; Stoop as you go through it, and you will miss many hard thumps." This advice, thus beat into my head, has frequently been of use to me; and I often think of it, when I see pride mortified, and misfortunes brought upon people by their carrying their heads too high.
* Cotton Mather.
I long much to see again my native place, and to lay my bones there. I left it in 1723; I visited it in 1733, 1743, 1753, and 1763. In 1773 I was in England; in 1775 I had a sight of it, but could not enter, it being in possession of the enemy.* I did hope to have been there in 1783, but could not obtain my dismission from this employment here; and now I fear I shall never have that happiness. My best wishes however attend my dear country. Esto perpetua. It is now blest with an excellent constitution; may it last for ever!
This powerful monarchy continues its friendship for the United States. It is a friendship of the utmost importance to our security, and should be carefully cultivated. Britain has not yet well digested the loss of its dominion over us, and has still at times some flattering hopes of recovering it. Accidents may increase those hopes, and encourage dangerous attempts. A breach between us and France would infallibly bring the English again upon our backs; and yet we have some wild heads among our countrymen, who are endeavouring to weaken that connexion! Let us preserve our reputation by performing our engagements; our credit by fulfilling our contracts; and friends by gratitude and kindness; for we know not how soon
• In October, 1775, he went to the camp at Cambridge, as one of a, committee from Congress to consult with General Washington respectins; the affairs of the army then besieging Boston.