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121. Announces the projected change
of ministry, 183. His coalition with
Mr. Fox, 4!K).

fCortheast Storms, suggestion that their
course is opposed to the course of the
wind, VI. 81). Mode of ascertaining
this fact, 105. Franklin's suggestion
as to the cause, 221.

Morthmen, Wheaton's History of the,
alluded to, respecting their discovery
of America, II. 76. VIII. 6!).

JVonnay, seizure of American prizes in,
VI11. 407, 425. M. BernstorrTs com-
munication on the subject, 433. Same
subject, 402. IX. 511. Complaint
by the Danish ambassador of outrages
committed by American cruisers on
the coast of, IX. 157, 107, 171.

tfote respecting Trade and Manufac-
tures, II. 366.

Notes on Virginia, Jefferson's, X. 317.

Motions concerning Trade and Mcr-
clwnts, II. 418.

Nurn Scotia, difficulty of finding set-
tlers for, IV. 354. Amount of parlia-
mentary grant for, 369.


Ohsercations and Suppositions towards

forming a new Hypothesis of tlie Phe-
nomena of Thundergusts, V. 211.

Obscrcations concerning the Increase of
Manliind and the Peopling of Colonies,

Observations on Blood, mentioned,
VIII. 172.

Observations on War, II. 487.

Obtrusive Applications, remarks on,
VIII. 209, 218,224.

Officers, foreign, their obtrusive appli-
cations for employment in America,

Ohio Indians, their complaints of the
whiteb VII. 77. Treaty with the,
where made, 79.

Ohio Settlement, origin of the grant for
the, IV. 302. Report of the Lords
commissioners of trade upon the sub-
ject of the, 303. Their objections to
the grant, 304. Franklin's answer to
the report, 324. Facility of transpor-
tation to the, 352.

Oil, of the evaporation of, VI. 129.
Franklin's account of his first obser-
vation of its effect on the surface of
water, 253. Mr. Farish on the same
subject, 355. Pliny's allusion to this
property of, 356. Explanation of the
effect, 361. Preservation of a Dutch
ship by pouring it into the sea, 364.

Old Age, on the habits of, VII. 132.
On tenderness for, 133.

Old Testament, not all divinely in-
spired. X. 134.

Oi i \mi s, his remark on the power of
the Russians to endure heat and cold,
VI. 59.

Oliver, Andrew, Lieutenant-Gover-
nor, account of the procuring of his
letters with those of Hutchinson,
IV. 405. Address of the House of
Representatives of Massachusetts to
the King for his removal, 430. Pro-
ceedings of the Council relative to his
conduct as secretary of the province,
4b8. Petition for his removal, VIII.

Oliver, Peter, his account of the di-
vining rod, 11. 41.

Onslow, Arthur, dedication of the
Historical Review of the Constitution
and Government of Pennsylvania to,
III. 109.

Orleans, Duke of, his character, X.

Orphan Schoolhouse, Hints for Consid-
eration respecting the, in Philadel-
phia, II. 159.

Oswald, Richard, introduced to
Franklin by Lord Sbelburne, IX. 240.
Recommended by Mr. Laurens, 241.
Converses with Franklin, 242. Who
introduces him to Count de Ver-
gennes, 243. His interview with that
minister, 245. Suggests the surren-
der of Canada by Ureat Britain, 251.
Returns to Paris to adjust the prelim-
inaries of a treaty, 20a. His want of
explicitness, 269. His account to
Franklin of the views of the British
ministry in regard to peace, 311. By
whom commissioned to treat, 336.
Communicates to Lord Shelburne his
conversation with Franklin relative to
negotiation, 353. Receives his com-
mission to treat, 377. His instruc-
tions relative to the concession of
American Independence, 407. Alter-
ation in his commission proposed by
Mr. Jay, 407. And assented to, 408.

Paccard, ascends Mont Blanc, X. 279.

Parket-boats, failure of a scheme for,
VIII. 309.

Padua, Franklin's election as a mem-
ber of the Academy of Arts and Sci-
ences in, IX. 197.

Paine, Thomas, introduced by Frank-
lin to Richard Bache, VIII. 137. His
occupation in this country. 138. In-
troduced to General Lee. 174 Urged
by Franklin, not to publish an irreli-
gious work, X. 281. Introduced to

the Duke de la Rochefoucauld, 291.
His journey in France, 310. Model
of abridge, 311.

Pji riiti, William, his account of
Lord Howe's reception of a letter of
Franklins, V. 102. His death, IX. 3.

Paper, lines on, ascribed to Franklin
without apparent authority, II. Kil.
Chinese mode of manufacturing, VI.

Paper Currency, character of Frank-
lin's inquiry into the nature and ne-
cessity of a, II. 254. What classes
are interested against increasing, 20l.
What classes in favor of, 202. Effect
of a large addition to the, upon its
value, 203. Character of a, founded
on land, 268. Of the issue of, in
Pennsylvania in 1739, 277. Remarks
and facts relative to this American,

340. Report of the Board of Trade
in favor of restraining the issue of,

341. Its effects on the prosperity of
New England and Pennsylvania, 343.
Causes of its depreciation, 344. Its
advantages in some respects over gold
and silver, 349. Scheme for furnish-
ing the colonies with a, not a legal
tender, 352. Governor Pownsll's pfan
for giving stability to the, 354. Of
that of the United States, 421. Its
depreciation, arising from excess, 422.
Different descriptions of, 422. First
issue of, in Pennsylvania. III. 201.
Its effect, 202. Measures taken to
prevent depreciation, 203. Extract
from Franklin's vindication of the
American, VI. 322. Of the Pennsyl-
vanians, 368. Account of the Act of
Parliament relating to the, 429. Re-
marks on the American, VII. 4*2.
Queen Anne's proclamation for pro-
ducing uniformity in it, VIII. 115.
Remarks on, lib. Its depreciation,
329. Of reducing the quantity, 368.
Of that held by foreigners, 477. On
the American, 507. Its depreciation,
X. 9.

Par of Exchange, remarks on the, II.

Parable, against Persecution, account
of the, II. 118. Its origin not yet
traced, 121. Again mentioned, VIII.
404, X.400. The only credit claim-
ed by Franklin in relation to it, 401.

Paradise, his supposed negotiation
with Franklin in concert with Sir W.
Jones, VIII. 365. Removes to the
United States, X. 321.

Paratysis, effect of electricity in cases
of, V. 359.

Parcio, Antonino, his remark on the
protection against sickness afforded
by warm rooms, VI. 41.

YOl. X- 66

Paris, visit of Franklin to, VII. 358.
Use of rouge in, 360.

Parliament, remarks on an alleged
change of opinion in Dr. Franklin,
relative to its power over the colonies,
III. 67. Views of the colonists relative
to that power, IV. 169. Feeling of the
colonists towards, 170. Of its power
to tax in America, 216. Several of
the King's dominions not subject to,
281. On the representation of the
colonies in, VII. 315. Ill judged act
of, requiring the colonies to provide
for soldiers, 330. Its legislative pow-
er over the colonies, 3^1? On Amer-
ican representation in, 370. Of its
dissolution in 1768, 397. Act of, re-
lating to paper money, 42!). Its de-
termination not to repeal this duty
act, 439. Its encroachment on the
rights of the colonies, 477 Its right
to tax the colonies generally given
up, 501. That of 1772 does little in
regard to America, VIII 7. Its right
to legislate for the colonies denied,
88. Excitement produced by acts re-
lative to Massachusetts and Boston,
127. Debate in, on peace with Amer-
ica, 247. Of reform in, X. 79.

Parsons, William, VII. 99. Hisdeath
and character, 181.

Passports, for Moravian vessels and
Captain Cook, granted by Franklin,
V. 122.

Passy, its situation, VIII. 209. Frank-
lin's mode of life at, 315.

Pays de Pattd, respecting the mortality
of the, VI. 314.

Peace, debate in Parliament on, between
Great Britain and America, VIII. 247.
Not to be concluded without an ac-
knowledgment of the independence of
the latter, 253. Franklin's conversa-
tions with Mr. Hartley and Mr. Chap-
man, respecting propositions for, 268.
To be obtained only on fair and equal
terms. 2^5. Improbability of. 295. How
it might be effected, 300. The alliance
between France and the United States
an obstacle to, 312. Advantage of
obtaining some preliminaries of, 333.
Franklin s remarks on Hartlev's pro-
positions for a, 345. Unfounded ru-
mor of, 403. Mediation of Russia
and Austria for, declined by France,
IX. 4. Mediation for, again mention-
ed, 16. Mediation acrepted by Con-
gress, and instructions for the negotia-
tion of, communicated to Franklin,
46, 47. His interview with Count de
Vergennes, announcing his instruc-
tions. 70. Mr. Adams s remarks on
the commission for negotiating, 81.
Mediation for, not accepted by the


British cabinet, 89. Mr. Hartley's
history of the proceedings for promo-
ting a negotiation for, 118. Mr. Liv-
ingston's suggestions respecting the
general terms of, 128. Extent to
which the limits of the United States
should be determined in a treaty ofv
129. And to which the fisheries
should be enjoyed by the United
Stairs, 1:55. Impolicy of making stip-
ulations in favor of the loyalists in a
treaty of, 139. No negotiations to be
opened by the American commission-
ers without the concurrence of Fiance,
141. Messrs. Franklin, Adams, Lau-
rens, and Jay authorized by a special
commission to treat of, 143. Mr.
Hartley's explanation of his proposi-
tion for a separate treaty, that it was
to be made with the consent of the
allies of the United States, 149. His
aupposed cases in which the United
States might treat separately, 151.
That the first step towards a, must be
taken by Great Britain, 105. Dispo-
sition of the British ministry favor-
able to, 168. Little probability that
negotiations will be soon entered on
for, 177. Mr. Digges's mission in
reference to, 179. Mr. Hartley's in-
quiry as to the authority of the Amer-
ican commissioners to treat, 181. De-
sired in England, 184. Mr. Digges's
interview with Mr. Adams, 186. Ob-
ject of his mission, 191. Dilatory con-
duct of Great Britain in reference to,
193. American commissioners ready
to treat, 195. Reconciliation more
than, 196. Mr. Forth's mission in
reference to, 21)4. Separate treaty for,
proposed to France by Great Britain,
and declined, 205. Insincerity of
Lord North's ministry in their pro-
ceedings in 1eference to, 208. Canada
ottered to France, to induce her to
treat separately, 210. Proper mode
of seeking, 218. Journal of the ne-

fotiation for, with Great Britain, 23K.
ranklin's letter to Lord Shelburne,
239; who sends to him Mr. Os-
wald to institute proceedings for a,
240. Lord Shelburne's ministry so-
licitous for, 242, 243. Count de Ver-
gennes's view as to the place and
mode of treating, 246. Franklin's
notes for conversation with Mr. Os-
wald respecting, 250. Not likely to
be durable without reconciliation,
253. France insists on a general,
not a particular, 255. The idea of
a separate, still cherished by the
British ministry, 257, 258. Mr. Os-
wald commissioned to settle the pre-
liminaries of a general, 265. Mr.

Grenville also commissioned by Mi.
Fox, 207. Mr. Oswald's want of ex-
plicitness, 209, 270. England willing
to treat for a general, 272. Cession
required of France as a condition of
acknowledging American Indepen-
dence, 273. Paris agreed on, as the
place of treating for, 277. Release
of American prisoners a step towards,
283. Mr. Laurens declines acting
under the commission for, 287. Dif-
ficulty of negotiating a popular, 290.
Mr. Hartley s interview with Lord
Shelburne on the subject of, 294.
Copy of the preliminaries left by him
with Lord Shelburne, ii96. Mr. Gren-
ville declares himself iully commis-
sioned to treat for, with France and
her allies, 297. His commission ap-
plicable only to France, 299. Lord
Shelburne's distrust of the professions
of the French cabinet in favor of,
303. Mr. Grenville's explanation of
the deficiency in his commission, 306.
His view as to the resolution of the
American commissioners not to treat
without their allies, 306, 310. Neces-
sary to Great Britain, 311. Lord
Shelburne's declaration of his sincer-
ity in regard' to negotiating for, 313.
Act to enable the King to conclude a,
with the United States, 314. The
American commissioners not author-
ized to make stipulations in favor of
the loyalists, 315. Mediation of Rus-
sia declined by Holland, 317. Im-
possibility of the United States treat-
ing separately for, 323. Mr. Grenville
declares himself fully commissioned
to treat with France, and any other
Prince or State, :531. And to declare
the independence of America previ-
ous to the treaty for, 332. Count de
Vergennes satisfied with Mr. Gren-
ville's powers, 335. Authority and
character of Mr. Oswald and Mr.
Grenville, 336. Progress of the ne-
gotiation for, 340. Objection to Mr.
Grenville's commission, 345. Of the
attempt to treat for, in the United
States, by General Carleton, 348. Its
danger, 349. Delay in the opening
of the negotiation, 351. Prominent
points of the treaty for, as proposed
and insisted on by Franklin, before
any communication between the Brit-
ish and the other American commis-
sioners, 354. Continued delay in
opening the negotiation, 360. No
treaty for, to be made, except on the
basis of independence, 362, 364. Re-
specting an intended reserve in the
grant of independence, 367. Count
de Vergennes's doubt of the sincerity
of the British ministry in proposing a
negotiation of, 373. Mr. Oswald's
commission to treat for, 370. Mr.
Jay's view as to the grant of indepen-
dence prior to a, 377; and in regard
to the claims of the loyalists, 378.
Delay in opening the negotiation for,
38.V Franklin's view as to the mode
of granting independence, 388. Sin-
cerity of the British ministry in refer-
ence to, 396. Mr. Oswald instructed
to make American independence the
first article in the treaty of, 402. But
not to cede it without a truce or trea-
ty , 403. The fisheries proposed by
Franklin as an essential article in a
treaty of, 404. Agreed, that indepen-
dence shall stand as an article of trea-
ty, 407. Sincerity of both parties in
desiring, 410. Objections to the ne-
gotiation for, removed, 414. Progress
of the negotiation, 417. Of the ex-
tent to which the right to the fisher-
ies should be conceded, 424. I m pos-
sibility of admitting an article for in-
demnifying the loyalists, 432. Pre-
liminary articles of, between the
United States and Great Britain,
agreed on, 435. History of the ne-
gotiation, 439. Preliminary articles
of, between France and England,
agreed on, 442. Of the treaty of,
with Sweden, 443. Count de Ver-
gennes's complaint, that the prelimi-
naries between the United States and
Great Britain were signed without
communication with the French cab-
inet, 449. Not to be concluded be-
tween England and America without
the concurrence of France, 450.
Count de Vergennes's remarks to
M. de la Luzerne upon the same sub-
ject, 452 Progress of the treaties
with other powers, 4">. Refusal of
the French court to conctude a treaty
of, till the American commissioners
were satisfied, 458. Not yet conclud-
ed between France and England, 462.
Nor between England and the United
States, 403. Proposed article in the
treaty of, relative to privateering, 46').
Preliminaries signed between France,
Spain, and England, 473. Terms of
the, not approved in England, 439.
Franklin's remarks on them, 499.
Reason of the delay of the definitive
treaties of. 513. Preliminaries of, be-
tween England and Holland not yet
aigncd, 525. Delay of the negotia-
tions, 528. Franklin's justification of
the signing of the treaty of, without
communicating it to the French court,
632. Definitive treaty of, ratified, X.
19, 37. Treaty of, ratified by Con-

gress, 56. Remarks on it, 70. Rati-
fications exchanged, 87. Of alleged
defects of form in the ratification, 94,
90, 97. Of the ratification, 100.

Pkmrkrton, Israel, his account of
Franklin's energy in promoting Brad-
dock's expedition, VII. 96.

Penf.t, agent of Virginia,absconds, IX.

Pens, Grenville, allusion to hi« char-
ter, VII. 273.

Penn, John, his proclamation respect-
ing the massacre of the Conestogo
Indians, IV. 57. His second procla-
mation, 00.

Penk, Springet, some account of.
VII. 227.

Pen*, Thomas, his subscription to the
academy, VII. 81. His conduct to
his nephew, 227. His account of
Franklin's conduct in England, 243.
See ProvrictaYies of Pennsylvania.

Penn, William, anecdote of, 1. 153.
Charter granted to, III. 98. Its ori-
gin, 116. Its provisions, 117. His
first frame of government, 121. His
reservation of quitrenui, 123. His sec-
ond fiame of government, and mo-
tives which induced its acceptance,
126. Goes to England, leaving the
government in the hands of com-
missioners, 128. Difficulties arising
during his absence. His constitu-
tion oC government declared to be at
variance with that of the King and
Queen, 137. Remonstrance of the
Assembly to, 142. Returns to Penn-
sylvania and resumes the government,
147. Establishes a new form of elec-
tion, 148. Old Assembly dissolved
and new summoned, 149. Aid granted
to, 150. His speech to the Assembly,
151. Charter of privileges granted
bv him to the inhabitants of Pennsyl-
vania and territories, 154. Account
of this charter, 156. Accepted by the
province, but rejected by the territo-
ries, 157. Representation of the As-
sembly to, 108. His resentment, 179.
Remonstrance of the Assembly, 182.
His death, 188. His relation to the
province, 197. Consequence of his
being the sole purchaser of Indian
lands, 197. His treaty with the Con-
estogo Indians, IV. o4. His charac-
ter, 93. His contract for Uie sale of
his proprietary right to the crown,
125. Of the various portraits of, VII.
190. His family referred to, 273.

Pennisoto*, Edward, VII. 226.

Pennsylvania, abstract of a law of, re-
lative to paper money, II. 277. Effect
of that money uei her prosperity, 343.
Her legislation respecting debts of
foreigners, 5(H). Serious considera-
tions on the present state of the prov-
ince of, III. 1. Necessity of some
provision for the defence of, 5. Dan-
ger from the Indians, 8. Probable ef-
fect of an invasion of, 13. Spirit of
the rich in respect to defence, 16.
Her effective military strength, 18.
Historical Review of the Constitution
•rid Government of, 106. Union with
the territory of the three Lower Coun-
ties, 116. Assumption of the gov-
ernment of, by the King and Queen
in 1693, 1:35. Administration of the
government by Colonel Fletcher,

governor of New York, 136; who
eclares the constitution of the King
and Queen's government, and that
of Penn, hostile to each other, 137.
Threatens to annex the province to
New York, 138. New act of settle-
ment of the government, under the
administration of William Markham,
145. The government resumed by
Penn, 147. Assembly chosen accord-
ing to a new model, 148. Dissolved,
and a new one convened, 149. Con-
firmation of property and aids to the
governor granted, 150. Another As-
sembly convened, 150. Perm's char-
ter of privileges to the inhabitants of,
and those of the territories, 154. Ac-
cepted by the province, but rejected
by the territories, 157. Evans ap-
pointed governor of, 160. Vain at-
tempt to reunite the province and ter-
ritories, 161. Penn's interest in the
province left at his death in the hands
of trustees, 189. Easily governed, if
well governed, 193. First issue of
paper money in, 201. Grant made
by the Assembly of, for the expedi-
tion against Carthagena, 210. And
to forward the project against Louis-
burg and against Canada, 212. Act
for the issue of bills of credit passed
by the Assembly of, 279. Arrival of
Governor Morris in, and his first
speech to the Assembly, 281. The
Assembly called on by the governor
to take measures for the security of
the back inhabitants of, 386. Propo-
sition of certain gentlemen of Phila-
delphia to subscribe a sum in lieu of
the proprietary portion of the tax,
389. Appropriation by the Assembly
to arm the back inhabitants, 393.
Controversy between the Assembly
and the governor concerning the roads
opened by the province for the King's
forces, 400. Reconvocation of the
Assembly, in consequence of an ap-
prehended invasion of the French and
Indians, 415. A sum granted for the

King's use, to be struck in bills of
credit. 421. Indian trade bill passed,
431. Resolutions of the Assembly,
respecting their power of granting
supplies to the crown, 454. Indian
trade bill rejected by the governor,
450. Sir W. Johnson's treaty with,
the Six Nations laid before the As-
sembly, 471. Attempt of the gover-
nor, to involve the province in war
with the Indians, 471. Bill for sup-
ply by the emission of bills of credit,
489. Another, 490. Message of the

fovernor to the Assembly, respecting
ndian affairs, 493. Governor Morris
superseded by Governor Denny, 506.
Controversy between the governor
and Assembly, respecting a bill for a
supply tor the King's use, to be sunk
by an excise, 518. Representation of
the Assembly to the Proprietaries, re-
specting Indian expenses, 535. Wil-
liam Franklin's refutation of anony-
mous abuse of the inhabitants of, 564.
Account of sundry sums paid by, for
the King's service, 571. List of the
governors, deputy governors, and pres-
idents of, 576. Table exhibiting the
extent of the commerce of, IV. 39.
Argument in favor of changing the
proprietary government of, into a roy-
al one, 78. Petition to the King for
that purpose, 93. Report in the As-
sembly relative to taxing the estate
of the Proprietaries, 117. Resolution
of the Assembly in favor of a royal
government, 121. Number of peti-
tioners in favor of the measure, 123.
Remarks on a late Protest against the
Appointment of Mr.Franklin as Agent
of, 143. Of taxation in, 162. Of the
population of, 165. Of the commerce
of, 166. Rates of exchange in. 167.
Address of the Assembly of, to Frank-
lin, on his return from France, V 137.
Queries and remarks concerning al-
terations in the constitution of, 113.
Origin of the association for the de-
fence of, VII. 20. Character and hab-
its of the Germans in, 71. Their
influx into the country, 73. Preju- •
dices existing in England against,
175. Amount of parliamentary grants
to, 204. Of party violence in, 268.
Alarm in. at the news of the rejection
of the petition of the Assembly, 284.
Of paper money in, 368. Franklin
elected President of, X. 245, 303, 337.
See Pennsylvania, Assembly of
Pennsylvania, Assembly of, act of,
drawn by Franklin, retative to a vol-
untary militia, III. 78. Report of the
committee of aggrievances of the, 97.
Their controversies with the propria-

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