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Lane, such accounts against me as they shall present to you for that purpose. I am, my dear friend, yours yery affectionately,

B. Franklin.

FROM THE PRINCESS OF DASCHKOFF TO B. FRANKLIN.*

Giving him Notice of his having been chosen a Member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences.

St . Petersburg!), 4 November, 1789.

Dear Sir, Having always supposed, and even cherished the idea, that you were a member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, which is at St. Petersburgh under my direction, I was greatly surprised, when, reviewing the list of its members some days ago, I did not find your name in the number. I hastened therefore to acquire this honor for the Academy, and you were received among its members with an unanimous applause and joy. I beg you, Sir, to accept of this title, and to believe that I look upon it as an honor acquired by our Academy.

Wined a situation in one of the public offices of the United States' government; and, deeming Law more available to his new pursuits, he commenced the study of that science with unabated ardor, when he vu arrested by a disease of the pulmonary organs, which at an earlier period had given rise to alarming apprehensions among his friends. He died when he had just passed the age of his majority.

"The consideration, in which his memory is to be held, arises not alone from his numerous attainments in letters and philosophy. Various contributions to the periodical journals of the time attest at once his powers in his native language, the solidity of his acquisitions, and no mean force of original thinking. The only literary effort by which he will be remembered is his Continuation of the Life of Franklin."

The most important part of Stuber's Continuation is that in which he gives a historical account of Dr. Franklin's discoveries in electricity. This has been printed at large in the fifth volume of the present edition.

* This letter was written in English. Dr. Franklin bad occasionally met the Princess of Daschkoff at Paris. For several years she held the office of President and Director of the Academy of Sciencea at St . Petersburg!].

I shall order the patent to be despatched to you as soon as possible. In the mean time be assured, that it is with the greatest pleasure that I profit of the present occasion to give you token of my regard and veneration for your eminent character, and that I shall always recollect with pride the advantage I had to be personally noticed by you. With a sincere consideration I am, dear Sir, your most obedient servant,

Princess Of Daschkoff.

TO SAMUEL MOORE.

Philadelphia, 5 November, 1789.

Dear Sir,

I received your favor of July 25th, but had no opportunity of showing any civility to the bearer, whom you mention as coming under the auspices of William Franklin, as he did not show himself to me.

I am obliged by your kind inquiries after my health, which is still tolerably good, the stone excepted; my constitution being such, as, if it were not for that malady, might have held out yet some years longer.

I hope the fire of liberty, which you mention as spreading itself over Europe, will act upon the inestimable rights of man, as common fire does upon gold; purify without destroying them; so that a lover of liberty may find a country in any part of Christendom.

I see with pleasure in the public prints, that our Society* is still kept up and flourishes. I was an early member; for, when Mr. Shipley sent me a list of the subscribers, they were but seventy; and, though I had no expectation then of going to England, and acting with them, I sent a contribution of twenty guineas; in consideration of which the Society were afterwards pleased to consider me a member.

* The London Society for promoting Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, of which Mr. Moore was Secretary.

I wish to the exertions of your manufacturers, who are generally excellent, and to the spirit and enterprise of your merchants, who are famed for fair and honorable dealing, all the success they merit in promoting the prosperity of your country.

I am glad our friend Small enjoys so much health, and his faculties so perfectly, as I perceive he does by his letters. I know not whether he is yet returned from his visit to Scotland, and therefore give you the trouble of the enclosed. My best wishes attend you, being ever, dear Sir, your most obedient servant,

B. Franklin.

TO ALEXANDER SMALl.

Poor Laws. American Loyalists. French and English Governments.

Philadelphia, 5 November, 1789.

Dear Sra,

I received your several favors of April 23d, May 9th, and June 2d, together with the manuscript concerning Ventilation,* which will be inserted in our next volume.

I have long been of your opinion, that your legal provision for the poor is a very great evil, operating as it does to the encouragement of idleness. We have followed your example, and begin now to see our error, and, I hope, shall reform it. I find by your letters,

•See Vol. VI. pp. 307-334.

that every man has patience enough to bear calmly and coolly the injuries done to other people. You have perfectly forgiven the royalists, and you seem to wonder, that we should still retain any resentment against them for their joining with the savages to burn our houses, and murder and scalp our friends, our wives, and our children. I forget who it was that said, "We are commanded to forgive our enemies, but we are nowhere commanded to forgive our friends." Certain it is, however, that atrocious injuries done to us by our friends are naturally more deeply resented than the same done by enemies. They have left us, to live under the government of their King in England and Nova Scotia. We do not miss them, nor wish their return; nor do we envy them their present happiness.

The accounts you give me of the great prospects you have respecting your manufactures, agriculture, and commerce, are pleasing to me; for I still love England and wish it prosperity. You tell me, that the government of France is abundantly punished for its treachery to England in assisting us. You might also have remarked, that the government of England had been punished for its treachery to France in assisting the Corsicans, and in seizing her ships in time of full peace, without any previous declaration of war. I believe governments are pretty near equal in honesty, and cannot with much propriety praise their own in preference to that of their neighbours.

You do me too much honor in naming me with Timoleon. I am like him only in retiring from my public labors; which indeed my stone, and other infirmities of age, have made indispensably necessary.

I hope you are by this time returned from your visit to your native country, and that the journey has given a firmer consistence to your health. Mr. Penn's property in this country, which you inquire about, is still immensely great; and I understand he has received ample compensation in England for the part he lost.

I think you have made a happy choice of rural amusements; the protection of the bees, and the destruction of the hop insect. I wish success to your experiments, and shall be glad to hear the result. Your Theory of Insects appears the most ingenious and plausible of any, that have hitherto been proposed by philosophers.

Our new Constitution is now established with eleven States, and the accession of a twelfth is soon expected. We have had one session of Congress under it, which was conducted with remarkable prudence, and a good deal of unanimity. Our late harvests were plentiful, and our produce still fetches a good price, through an abundant foreign demand and the flourishing state of our commerce. I am ever, my dear friend, yours most affectionately,

B. Franklin.

TO M. LE ROY.

On the Affairs of France.

Philadelphia, 13 November, 1789.

It is now more than a year, since I have heard from my dear friend Le Roy. What can be the reason? Are you still living? Or have the mob of Paris mistaken the head of a monopolizer of knowledge, for a monopolizer of corn, and paraded it about the streets upon a pole.

Great part of the news we have had from Paris, for near a year past, has been very afflicting. I sincerely wish and pray it may all end well and happy, both

Vol. x. 52 Ii

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