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are to be surmounted. I send you at present but a single copy of these three volumes, because I do not know, nor have I been able to ascertain from Signor Pio, how many copies of the former volumes of my work he has forwarded. You have only to inform me of the number, and to give me the address of the person in France to whom the packet is to be directed, and I will immediately send a similar number of copies of the volumes just published. These contain the fourth book of the work, which has for its subject the laws which concern education, manners, and public instruction. My ideas on these subjects are certainly new, but are they sound? As to this point, it belongs to you, more than to any one else, to decide.

May you enjoy, Sir, the laurels to which your talents and your virtues so well entitle you. The blessings, invoked on your name by a great nation, are the only reward worthy of the author of their liberty and the avenger of their wrongs. God grant, that your years may be prolonged according to the wishes and

in regard both to its plan and execution, which has ever been published. M. Salfi, in his Eloge de Filangieri, prefixed to a French translation of the Scienza della Legislazione, printed at Paris in 1822, states the following particulars.

“Le célèbre Franklin, reconnoissant en Filangieri un homme capable de faire de son pays ce qu'il avoit fait, lui, des États-Unis, lui envoya, ainsi qu'au roi des Deux-Siciles, un exemplaire de la constitution de cette naissante république. Il s'empressa même de répandre la Science de la Législation parmi ses nouveaux concitoyens, qui reconnurent et apprécièrent bientôt dans son auteur un de leurs frères. On peut regarder comme un témoignage de reconnoissance donné à ces modernes républicains, ce que firent en même temps quelques philanthropes du royaume de Naples. Ils décorèrent du nom de Philadelphie une ville de Calabre, qu'on vit renaître de ses ruines après le tremblement de terre de 1783. Je relève cette circonstance particulière pour que le voyageur éclairé ne voie pas, dans ce monument, l'ouvrage de la bizarrerie ou du hasard ; il doit y admirer un indice incontestable des progrès que l'esprit de Filangieri commençoit à faire au milieu des Calabrois."

the interests of that nation, and that your advanced age may not prevent you from strengthening, and perfecting, and placing upon an eternal foundation by wise laws, the work achieved by a just indignation and by valor. I have the honor to subscribe myself in sincerity, Sir, your most devoted and obedient servant,

GAETANO FILANGIERI.

TO DAVID HARTLEY.

State of America.

Philadelphia, 27 October, 1785. DEAR SIR, I received at Havre de Grace six copies of your print, which I have brought with me hither. I shall frame and keep one of them in my best room. I shall send one to Mr. Jay, and give the others among some friends who ésteem and respect you as we do

Your newspapers are filled with accounts of distresses and miseries, that these States are plunged into since their separation from Britain. You may believe me when I tell you, that there is no truth in those accounts. I find all property in lands and houses augmented vastly in value; that of houses in towns at least fourfold. The crops have been plentiful, and yet the produce sells high, to the great profit of the farmer. At the same time, all imported goods sell at low rates, some cheaper than the first cost. Working people have plenty of employ and high pay for their labor.

These appear to me as certain signs of public prosperity. Some traders, indeed, complain that trade is dead; but this pretended evil is not an effect of inability in the people to buy, pay for, and consume the

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usual articles of commerce, as far as they have occasion for them; it is owing merely to there being too many traders, who have crowded hither from all parts of Europe with more goods than the natural demand of the country requires. And what in Europe is called the debt of America, is chiefly the debt to these adventurers and supercargoes to their principals, with which the settled inhabitants of America, who never paid better for what they want and buy, have nothing to do. As to the contentment of the inhabitants with the change of government, methinks a stronger proof cannot be desired, than what they have given in my reception. You know the part I had in that change, and you see in the papers the addresses from all ranks with which your friend was welcomed home, and the sentiments they contain confirmed yesterday in the choice of him for President by the Council and new Assembly, which was unanimous, a single voice in seventy-seven excepted.

I remember you used to wish for newspapers from America. Herewith I send a few, and you shall be regularly supplied, if you can put me in a way of sending them, so as that you may not be obliged to pay postage. With unchangeable esteem and respect I am, my dear friend, yours most affectionately,

B. FRANKLIN.

TO MRS. MARY HEWSON.

Philadelphia, 30 October, 1785. I received my dear friend's letter of July 23d, at Southampton, where I arrived the 24th, and stayed till the 28th. I believe I acquainted you by a line, immediately after my arrival here, that we had a pleasant, and not a long passage, in which there was but the interests of that nation, and that your advanced age may not prevent you from strengthening, and perfecting, and placing upon an eternal foundation by wise laws, the work achieved by a just indignation and by valor. I have the honor to subscribe myself in sincerity, Sir, your most devoted and obedient servant,

GAETANO FILANGIERI.

TO DAVID HARTLEY.
State of America.

Philadelphia, 27 October, 1785. DEAR SIR, I received at Havre de Grace six copies of your print, which I have brought with me hither. I shall frame and keep one of them in my best room. I shall send one to Mr. Jay, and give the others among some friends who ésteem and respect you as we do

Your newspapers are filled with accounts of distresses and miseries, that these States are plunged into since their separation from Britain. You may believe me when I tell you, that there is no truth in those accounts. I find all property in lands and houses augmented vastly in value; that of houses in towns at least fourfold. The crops have been plentiful, and yet the produce sells high, to the great profit of the farmer. At the same time, all imported goods sell at low rates, some cheaper than the first cost. Working people have plenty of employ and high pay for their labor.

These appear to me as certain signs of public prosperity. Some traders, indeed, complain that trade is dead; but this pretended evil is not an effect of inability in the people to buy, pay for, and consume the

usual articles of commerce, as far as they have occasion for them; it is owing merely to there being too many traders, who have crowded hither from all parts of Europe with more goods than the natural demand of the country requires. And what in Europe is called the debt of America, is chiefly the debt to these adventurers and supercargoes to their principals, with which the settled inhabitants of America, who never paid better for what they want and buy, have nothing to do. As to the contentment of the inhabitants with the change of government, methinks a stronger proof cannot be desired, than what they have given in my reception. You know the part I had in that change, and you see in the papers the addresses from all ranks with which your friend was welcomed home, and the sentiments they contain confirmed yesterday in the choice of him for President by the Council and new Assembly, which was unanimous, a single voice in seventy-seven excepted.

I remember you used to wish for newspapers from America. Herewith I send a few, and you shall be regularly supplied, if you can put me in a way of sending them, so as that you may not be obliged to pay postage. With unchangeable esteem and respect I am, my dear friend, yours most affectionately,

B. FRANKLIN.

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TO MRS. MARY HEWSON.

Philadelphia, 30 October, 1785. I received my dear friend's letter of July 23d, at Southampton, where I arrived the 24th, and stayed till the 28th. I believe I acquainted you by a line, immediately after my arrival here, that we had a pleasant, and not a long passage, in which there was but

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