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editor and bookseller of my map and description of the States of America. I had already done in the matter every thing in my power when I was on the spot, and pressed the point stronger than I should have done, had it been for my account; but, when I considered it, as what I really wished, the doing an act of charity to the daughter of an ingenious and illtreated man,* I exerted more pains about it than is my ordinary custom. I wished to make my intended charity as efficient and productive as possible. If I were on the spot I could not do more. I have prepared a second edition, with very many additions. If you will recommend to me any person who will translate it into French, I will publish this edition in France and give the whole profits to Evans's daughter.

I am told you are on the point of returning to your own country, a country which you have not only saved, but formed into a State, independent and sovereign. You must excuse me when I say what I feel . that I envy you. God has not only made you an instrument of good to your country, but has given you the most supreme of all happiness in this world, that of seeing your country and all the world acknowledging your deeds; that of, therefore, living to receive from their acknowledgments your reward in this world. It was your happiness to be in a situation of exerting your abilities in a line of politics, in which Providence had designed to lead the affairs of men.

I wished, in my line of conduct, to have served a country, which, alas! I could not, at least would not, believe was too far gone in corruption of all sorts, but especially in corruption of politics, to be served. This corruption sunk to ignorance and inspired with inso

• Lewis Evans, the geographer.

fence the nation, and Providence gave it leaders and governors exactly calculated to lead it to its just punishment . But, whatever my habitual love to my native country was, I thank God I always had a feeling for the welfare of the English nation, which superseded all local considerations; and I am happy in my hopes, that real political liberty, with all its concomitant and consequent happiness, will be established in that branch of the English nation, which Providence planted and nurtured in America. Providence now holds this out to them, and may they have the temper and wisdom to see what is their real interest, or, at least, to take the advice of those who do see. If God grants you ftfe and health, what a glorious scene in this great drama have you before you, in giving and persuading yoar country to take your advice, as to the settlement of their independence in a sovereignty free and efficient to all the purposes of liberty and their real interest . I have the pleasing consciousness to think, that my Memoir* addressed to them, will not, when understood, be entirely useless and inefficient to those ends.

Adieu, my dear friend. You are going to a new world, formed to exhibit a scene which the old world never yet saw. You leave me here in the old world, which, like myself, begins to feel, as Asia hath felt, that it is wearing out apace. We shall never meet again on this earth; but there is another world, where we shall meet, and where we shall be understood, and those of us, who shall not have our reward here, will have it in all fulness there. If you receive this, pray let me hear from you before you depart, but more especially, if you have leisure, when you arrive at home. Studying the state of this country, with reference to what I know (as the workman knows his own metier) of America, I see many things which might be useful for America to copy. A temperate spirit and a homely wisdom have established real liberty and actual happiness here, with surer and a longer permanency, than any other country ever yet enjoyed in quiet. I shall not neglect to collect these experiences with reference to America; and if I can communicate them to you, or to any one where I can be sure they will be of use, I will with pleasure do it; and the more so, as I find, that the very spirit and true foundation of the constitutions of this country have not been understood; first, by scribbling voyagers; and next, less so by speculating writers, who write from system, not from fact. Once more, my dear friend, adieu. May you have an easy passage, with as little pain as possible, and a happy arrival at your home. Remember your old and affectionate friend,

* A tract entitled, " Memorial addressed to the Sovereigns of America," published, 1783.

Thomas Pownall.


Leaves Passy. Travels to Havre in the King's Litter.

Passy, 4 July, 1785.

Dear Friend,

By this post I have given orders to engage a fine ship, now at London, to carry me and my family to Philadelphia. My baggage is already on the Seine, going down to Havre, from whence, if the captain cannot call for us there, we shall cross the channel, and meet him at Cowes, in the Isle of Wight. The ship has a large, convenient cabin, with good lodgingplaces. The whole to be at my disposition, and there

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is plenty of room for you and yours. You may never have so good an opportunity of passing to America, if it is your intention. Think of it, and take your resolution; believing me ever your affectionate friend,

B. Franklin.

P. S. Love to the dear children. If Mr. Williams is returned to London, he will inform you of the particulars. If not, you may inquire of Wallace, Johnson, and Muir, merchants, London, to be heard of at the Pennsylvania Coffee-House, Birchin Lane. The ship is to be at Cowes the 1st of August .


Practicability and Expediency of establishing a Bishop in Jbnerica.

Paasy, 5 July, 1785.

My Lord,

I received the too complaisant letter your Lordship did me the honor of writing to me by the Reverend Mr. Christian, who has also communicated some of your views for the benefit of religion in the United States of America, requesting my opinion, which I have given him, but will repeat in this letter, lest I should not in every particular have been rightly apprehended.

It is proper to be understood, that those States consist of thirteen distinct and separate sovereignties, each governed by its own laws, in which no one religious sect is established as predominant, but there is a general toleration of all; and, should any thing be enacted by one of them in favor of a particular sect, it would have no operation in the others. The Congress, though formed by delegates from each State chosen annually, has powers extending only to those general affairs of political government, that relate to the whole, but no authority whatever is given to them in ecclesiastical matters. And I therefore think, they will do nothing, either to encourage or discourage the introduction of a bishop in America. For myself, I can only say as a private person, that I think such an officer may be of use to the Episcopalians, not only for the better government of their clergy, but for preventing the expense and risk that attend the sending of their young men to England for ordination. He should, however, have power to consecrate other bishops, so as to prevent for ever the necessity of sending to England for successors in that station, otherwise he will hardly be so well received.

The great difficulty will be to make proper provision for his support. I doubt whether any of the governments will establish such support, and I have not much confidence, that any thing considerable may be obtained by private contributions. My reasons are, that the Episcopalians in most of the States are very small in number, compared with the inhabitants of other persuasions; and, where they are a majority, they do not generally see the necessity or utility of a resident bishop, and they apprehend some inconvenience in it. Of this there was a strong instance in Virginia, some years before the late Revolution. The inhabitants of that Province were almost wholly of the Church of England, and their House of Commons of course the same. Yet that House unanimously censured, in strong terms, the proposition of some of their own clergy for introducing a bishop, and thanked others who opposed and defeated the project, as may be seen in the following extract from their Journal.

"Friday, July 12th, 1772. Resolved, nemine contra

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