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Hommes. This gentleman is esteemed here, and I recommend him to your civilities and counsels, particularly with respect to the printing of a piece he has written on the subject of hereditary nobility, on occasion of the order of Cincinnati lately attempted to be established in America, which cannot be printed here. I find that some of the best judges think it extremely well written, with great clearness, force, and elegance. If you can recommend him to an honest, reasonable bookseller, that will undertake it, you will do him service, and perhaps some to mankind, who are too much bigoted in many countries to that kind of imposition.
I had formerly almost resolved to trouble you with no more letters of recommendation; but I think you will find this gentleman to possess talents, that may render his acquaintance agreeable. With sincere esteem, I am ever, my dear friend, yours most affectionately,
FROM COUNT DE 'VERGENNES TO B. FRANKLIN.
Versailles, 9 September, 1784. SIR, I have received the letter which you did me the honor to write me on the 3d instant. You there declare in the name of Congress, that the United States will be careful not to treat any other nation, in matters of commerce, more advantageously than the French nation. This declaration, founded on the treaty of the 6th of February, 1778, has been very agreeable to the King; and you, Sir, can assure Congress, that the United States shall constantly experience a perfect reciprocity in France. I have the honor to be, very sincerely, Sir, &c.
FROM WILLIAM CARMICHAEL TO B. FRANKLIN.
Appointment of M. Gardoqui as Minister from Spain to the United States. — Count de Galvez.
Madrid, 25 September, 1784. DEAR SIR, Since I had the honor to answer your Excellency's letter of the 28th ultimo, from St. Ildefonso, this court has judged proper to adopt a measure, which it has had in contemplation for some time past, by finally concluding to send M. Gardoqui, late consul-general in England, to represent His Catholic Majesty in the character of Chargé d'Affaires to the United States; with a commission, however, of minister, in case, previous to his arrival or immediately after, Congress shall think fit to name a person in that character here to replace Mr. Jay. Accordingly his appointments are those of minister, his salary being twelve thousand hard dollars, with two thousand pistoles for his outfits. This gentleman is to embark before the middle of next month from Cadiz, on board a Spanish frigate ready for that purpose, the King defraying every expense of himself and suite on their passage.
On finding that this gentleman's mission would take place sooner than I expected, I took occasion to mention, though not officially, to the Count de Florida Blanca, the nature of the new commission appointed to treat with the European powers, mentioned in your letter abovementioned. Finding that he did not appear altogether satisfied with this mode of negotiating, I endeavoured to convince him, that the measure had been adopted by Congress for the convenience of the European courts inclined to treat with the States.
I have the honor to inform you of these circum
stances, as it is proper they should be known to Messrs. Adams and Jefferson, from whom I have not had the pleasure of hearing since their arrival at Paris; and I beg leave to solicit your and their advice for my government, having been deprived of every kind of information from Congress, since the 7th of May, 1783. M. Gardoqui is known to Mr. Adams and your Excellency, and is principally chosen by the court from a supposition, that he will be agreeable in America, from his known affection to the country and his attachment to its interest. He is a very well meaning man, and very sincerely disposed to promote and cultivate a lasting harmony between this country and ours. The choice of him, therefore, for this mission, may be considered as a proof of the good disposition of the court; which, though hurt by the silence of Congress, has manifested much attention to the objects relative to the interests of individuals of America, for which I have had occasion to have recourse to its interference.
Having no precise information of the nature of the services rendered by the South Carolina frigate, or of the sum expected for those services, I shall make it a point to procure instruction for M. Gardoqui to settle that business in America, which can be done with more despatch there than in Europe, because the Count de Galvez, now on his way to Havana, was commanderin-chief when that frigate was employed, and must be consulted from hence before any step can be taken definitely satisfactory to the State of South Carolina. Not to omit any thing that may terminate this matter to the satisfaction of the State, I shall write on the subject to the Count de Galvez, whom I have the honor to know personally, and endeavour to dispose him to render all the good offices, that may depend on him, in the arrangement of this affair.* With very respectful compliments to Messrs. Adams and Jefferson, I have the honor to be, with high regard and much esteem, &c.
FROM COUNT DE MERCY ARGENTEAU TO B. FRANKLIN.
Passy, 28 September, 1784.
With respect to the proposition of the United States of America, that I forwarded to my court, concerning the arrangements of commerce to be adopted by the respective dominions, I have received the order, Sir, which I have the honor to communicate to you, that his Majesty, the Emperor, has agreed to the said proposition, and that he has directed the government general of the Low Countries to adopt measures to put it in execution.
When the particulars respecting this matter shall be sent to me, I shall instantly communicate them.
* The South Carolina frigate was the same that was commanded by Commodore Gillon, as heretofore mentioned. See Vol. IX. p. 54. Gillon sailed from Corunna to Teneriffe, where he remained some time, and then pursued his course for Charleston; but, while on his way, he fell in with and captured five English vessels from Jamaica laden with rum and sugar. Being blown off the coast when he approached Charleston, he took his prizes to Havana, where they were sold. The Spaniards at this time having fitted out an expedition against the English in the West Indies, Gillon joined them with his frigate, and they made a successful descent upon the Bahama Islands. For the service of the frigate in this expedition the State of South Carolina claimed an indemnity, and the American Chargé d'Affaires at the court of Madrid was instructed by Congress to present and support the claim. See Journals of Congress, May 3d, 1784.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew the assurances of the most perfect attachment, with which I have the honor to be, &c.
DE MERCY ARGENTEAU.
FROM ROBERT MORRIS TO B. FRANKLIN. Settlement of the Public Accounts. — Contingent Fund.
Office of Finance, 30 September, 1784. DEAR SIR, This is rather a late day to acknowledge your favors of the 25th of December and 15th of June last, but I have always intended in my acknowledgment of them to close our public correspondence, and I have always been disappointed in my expectation of being able speedily to quit this office. That period, however, so ardently desired, is at length nearly arrived, and, while I look back at the cares and dangers past, I feel an increased emotion of joy by a comparison with future hopes and expectations. But I cannot view the past scene without strong feelings of gratitude and respect for the able and active efforts you have made to support the finances of this country. I would to God, that your just sentiments on property and taxation were as fully felt as they must be clearly understood in America ; but time is necessary to mellow the judgment of a country as well as of a man. Happy indeed shall we be, if it produce that effect among us.
I am much obliged by your explanation of M. Chaumont's accounts. These, as well as the other accounts, are lodged at the treasury, which is the most proper place for both. If any insinuations have been made injurious to you, in connexion with Chaumont, they have not reached me, and I am persuaded that none