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Situation of the French Nation and Government, and Views of the Directory,

Difficulties to be encountered by France at the Close of 1795.—State of

Parties in England.Temper of the British Nation.Assemblies for the

Purpose of a Parliamentary Reform, and Peace with France.A great and

dangerous Scarcity of Provisions.—Meeting of Parliament.Insults and

Outrages of an immense Mob against the King, on his Way to the House of

Lords.The regret of all People of Sense a( this Treatment of the King.

Speech from the Throne.Debates thereon.In the House of Commons.

And in that of the Lords . . . , .1


A Proclamation offering a large pecuniary Reward for the Discovery of any

Persons guilty of the recent Outrages against the Person of the King.

Conference between the Lords and Commons on this Subject.A Bill for the

Safety and Preservation os the King's Person and Government.Debates

tliereon in both Houses of Parliament.A Bill for the Prevention of Sedi-

tious Meetings.Debates thereon.The two Bills under Discussion in Par-

liament occasion a general Alarm, and much Opposition without Doors.

In this Opposition the lend u-as taken by the- JVhig-Club.IVInch was fol-

lowed by the Corresponding Societies and other Associations.As well as

different Bodies legally incorporated.The MiniJIry still persevere in their

Measures.Debates on the numerous Petitions against the two Bills now

pending in Parliament.General Indignation against the Principles and

Objects of these.The two Bills pasted into Laws - ,' .16


//; the House os Commons, Regulations respecting the Sale of Flour, and the
Making of Bread.Motions by Mr. Lec/imere and Mr. Whitbread, re-
specting the Causes of the Scarcity of Wheaten Flour, and the Hardships
incident lo the Labouring Poor.-Negatived.—Bill for Encouraging the
Cultivation of Waste Lands.Motions for the Support of the Land and Sea
Service.Strictures on the Conduct of Ministry in the War Department.
Replied to by Mr. -Wyndham.Debates on the Erection of Barrack's.
A Statement ps the Expences of 1796, amounting from tu inly-seven to
V»i. XXXV1JI.? tutnty-
twenty-eight Millions sterling.Debates concerning the Terms of the Lorn,
Vote approving the Conduct of the Minister on this SubjeR.—Aen
Taxes.Debates thereon.Me/sage from the King, intimating his Dis-
position to enter into a Negotiation with the present Government of Frame,
An Address moved, expressing the Readiness of the House to concur in
such a Measure.Amendment thereon, moved by Mr. Sheridan.This
rejeeltd, and the Address carried.Motion for Peace, by, Mr. Grey.
Negatived . , . , , . .47


Free Negroes in the Island of Jamaica.Hunted by Blood-Hounds.*—Motim,
by Air. Grey, in the House of Commons, for an Inquiry into the State of
the Nation.—Negatived.Farther Taxes.For paying the Interest os an
additional ljoaii.Mortality among the Troops sent against the French
West-India Islands.NeglecJ and Distresses of the Troops.Motion Jor
Documents on these Subjecls by Mr, Sheridan.Debates thereon.Mr.
Sheridan's Mo/ion agreed to.—-Motion, in the House os Peers, for the
Production of Papers refpeSing aVote of Parliament, in 17S3, recognizing
the Necessity of certain Public Reforms.Debates thereon.The Motion
negatived,Report of site Committee of Supply on the Resolution for
granting a Subsidy to the King os Sardinia. Conversation on that SubjeS.
—Charges laid again/I Mini/try, by Mr. Grey, as Ground of Impeach-
ment; and a Motion on that Subjccl.—Negatived.Motions, in bot!:
Houses of Parliament, against the Continuation of the War.Negativcd.-r-
Motion, by Mr. Wilberforce, for the Abolition of the Slavc-Trade, on a

certain Day.Negatived.'—7'/ie Session of Parliament closed by a Speech
from the Throne , , , , . ,60


First Cares and Employment of the French Directory.—Determination to
keep alive the Martial Spirit of the French Nation.And to Extend their
Victories as far as possible.—But, al the fame Time to make a shew of
Pacific Inclinations.—Preparations for War on the Part of the Allies.
Attempt towards Negotiation between the French and the Allies at Base,
in Switzerland.Rupture threatened between the French and Suiss Can-
tons.Prevented.^-Plan of Directory for Military Operations.^Mani-
festo of Charette.Revival of the War in La Vendee..New Complexion
of this.—Total Defeat of the Insurgents.Capture and Execution of Cha-
rette and Stostet.—Manifesto of the Dire&ory for Restraining the Cruel/its
of their Soldiers.Lenient Measures.Good Effc&s of these . , IS


Address of the DireSory to the French Armies.Determination to carry the
War into Italy.Difficulties to be encountered in carrying this Plan into
jLxcculion,Buonaparte.The Frenfh Arjny, under his Command, make;
rapid Progress in Italy.The Austrians, under General Beaulieu, con*.
stanlly repulsed, yet not dispirited.Various A Rions.Suspension of
Arms agreed on between the French and Piedmonlese Annies.General
Beaulicu re-crojses the Po, for covering the Countries to the North of that.
River.Al Paris, Negociation for Peace between the King of Sardinia
and the French Republic."Treaty of Peace between France and Sardinia
ratified by the Legistuiivc Bodies of France.Exultation and Confidence of
the French.Improved by Buonaparte, for the Purpose of leading on the
Army to farther Exploits.Address lo the Army.General Objecl and
Tendency of Buonaparte's private Conversation.Homage paid to the Merit
us Buonaparte and the Army, by the Directory.-^-Buonaparte puts his
Army in Motion.Crosses (he Po, and leaves General Beaulieu to break
up his Camp. —Armistice between the French Army and the Duke of Parma,
•—The French advance toward the Capital ofLombardy.Battle qf'Lodi.
Tint Austrians retreat to Mantua.The French proceed to Milan, where
the French General allows his People some Days of Repose , . 6j


F.xultation of the French al the Successes of their Armies.Their Army in
Italy animated by the Praises of their Countrymen, and the Conversatiotf
at well as the Proclamations of Buonaparte to a high Passion for Glory.
Enter the Duchy of Modena.Spoliation of Monuments of Antiquity and
Art.Abhorrence of the Italian Nobility and Clergy towards the French
greater than that of the inferior Classes.A general Insurreclion, ready to
break out, quajhcd by the Vigilance and Promptitude of Buonaparte.The
Auflriuns, under General Beaulicu, with the Connivance of the Venetians,
take Possession os Peschiera.Buonaparte advances against Beaulieu, who
re/reals to the Tyrolcre.—The Venetians tremble before the French.Dis-
miss from their Territories the Brother of the late King and Claimant of the
Crown of France.Buonaparte takes Possession of Verona.Blockades
Manlua.-r-Prcpares to march into the Tyrokse.Detained by Insurrections
in the Districls, known under the Name of Imperial Fiefs.These being
suppressed, he carries his Arms to the Southward.Reduces TorlOna, Bo-
logna, and Urbino.Menace* Rome.Armistice between the Pope and
Buonaparte.Suspenston of Hostilities with Naples.Buonaparte the Friend
and Patron of Men of Learning and Science,—Ambitious Views of the
French Republic.Insurreclion in Lugo.Quelled, and the City reduced by
the French.'The Blockade of Mantua converted into a close Siege.Raised
by Marshal lVurmser.ARians between the French Army aud that of the
Austrians, reinforced by Detachments from Mantua.Remarkably Instance,
. es Presence os Mind in Buonaparte.The Austrians driven back beyond the
Adige . . . . t .95


ttAliaA Mobs excited dgainst the Frvndh.Suppressed by a Terror of the
i.clorious French .--Marshal Iftirntfer, pursued by Buonaparte, retreats

»? *<■ fnlfj
into the Tyrolese.The Siege Of Mantua resumed.Marshal Wurm/er,
powerfully reinforced, makes Head againfl the French in the Venetian
Territories.But is defeated.The French take Possession of Trent.-~
Continued Success of Buonaparte.'Marshal Wurmjer, with tlie Remains
of his Army, makes good his Retreat, and takes Shelter within the Walls of
Mantua.Corsica, evacuated by the English, returns under the Govern-
ment of France.~—Pacification between France and Naplesincluding the
Batavian Republic.Religious Zeal of the Romans.*—Awakened by the Court
of Rome into rage, and avowed Preparations for War again (I the French.
A new Republic, composed of several small States.iPrevalence- of the
Republican Spirit in Italy.The Austrians reinforced with Troops from
Germany, advance against the French.Retake Trent.But arc de-
feated with prodigious Loss at Arcola.The Austrians, though frequently
defeated, return to the Charge.High Spirit and Courage of the Ty-
rolians.Devotion of the Army in Italy to the French Republic.Patience
of the French Soldiers under manifold Privations . . I0J

C H A P. IX.

Campaign in Germany.Opposite Designs of the French and Austrians.

Successes of the French.They invest Ehrenbrltftein.Driven back, by the

Archduke Char/es, to Duffeldorf.The 'Division tf the French Army under

Moreau takes Post at Strasburg.The Plan of Operations proposed by this

General.Crosses the Rhine.Reduces the Fortress ofKehl.Defeats the

Austrians, under Marshal Wurmjer, near Philip/burg.—And in various

and successive Engagements.The Austrians retire, in order to wait for

Reinforcements, into the Interior of Germany.-Jimdion of the French

Troops under Jourdan and Kleber.'These united reduce Frankfort.

Successes of Moreau in Swabia,Cessation of Hostilities between the French

andthePrinces oflVirtembcrg anil Baden.ConduSl of Prussia.A Prussian

Army lakes Possession of Nuremberg.—Impolicy of the French in the Mcdc

fif raising Contributions.Cause of this.Depredations of Ihc- French in

Germany.Operations of the French Ar mios under Moreau and Jourdan.

Disasters of the Austrians.The Emperor represents the. Situation of

Germany, and his own Silualion, in an Appeal to his Bohemian and Hunga-

rian Subjeils.Diet of the Empire.Partakes of the general Consternation

of Germany.Determination to open a Negotiation for Peace with France.

—The Tide of Success turned against the French by the Germans, under ifo

Archduke Charles.Obstinate Engagements.Masterly Retreat os the

French Armies.Particularly of that under Moreau.Consequences.

The Austrians occupied in the Siege of Kehl.Sally of the Garrison then.

Various' Actions'.Armistice between the French and Austrians.

The Diet of the Empire re-animated by the enterprising Spirit and Success

of the Archduke Charles, solicitous lo regain the Favour of the fmperial

Court ... . . . .' .126


Stale of Parties in France.A Revival of the Reign of Terror threatened in

the Southern Departments by Freron.The DireBory desert and oppose

the Jacobin Interest.Conspiracy of Jacobins.—Discovered and defeated.—

Arrangements reffieBing the Ejlates of Emigrants.Influence of the non~

juring or refraflury Clergy troublesome to Government. Scandalous

Neglcfl of the Execution of Justice.Criminal Trials.—Money and Fi-

nance.The fume Impositions laid on the People of the Austrian Nether-

'ands as on those of France.New Plots and Insurrections.Law for re-

conciling the different Faflions in France, by the Extinilion of Terror.

Proposal for repeating a Law which appeared to some to hear too hard

en the Relations of Emigrants.Rcjcflcd.Rut an equitable Alteration

made in that severe Law.This a Matter of Triumph to the moderate .

Party . . . . .147


Effects expefled in France from a growing Spirit of Moderation.—Tlie Chief

Objefi iti the Councils of France, how to Break or to Weaken the Power of

England.Plan of the French for that End.Means for Restoring the

Pecuniary Credit of the French Republic.A Rupture threatened between

the French Councils and Executive Dircflory.—Prevented by the necessity

tf their ailing in Concert.The Legislature Invade the Province of the

Directory, by the Appointment of a Committee for judging in Cases of

Appeals from Emigrants.Loftiness of the Dircflory.Humbled by the

IVise Economy and Firmness of the United Slates of America.Jea-

lousies and Disputes between the French and Americans.And an open

Rupture ....... 1G4-


Tlic Haughtiness of the DireBory towards different Nations.Particularly
towards the Dutch, whom they consider, not as Confederates, but a conquered
People.Moderation of the Republic and prepondering Party in the United
Provinces.Batavian Convention.Its Proceedings.Affairs of Geneva.
Meeting of the National Institute of France.Considered as an auspicious
Omen of the Return of Peace and Reign of the Arts.—And Liberty of
Thinking and Puhlijhing on all Snbjefls.The Alliance between tlie Church
and Monarchy of France, in the End, ruinous to both.The new, or consti-
tutional, Clergy avow their Ajsent to the Separation of the Church from the
State.~—Yel venture to condemn some Things Jellied, or approved, by the
republican Government.—But which they considered as adverse to the Dignity
and Interests of site ecclifiajlical Order.The Settlement of ecclefiajlical
Affairs considered by the Generality os the French as a Matter of great

! Importance . ..... 175


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