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It seems these bees were aborigines from the first building of the college, being called Collegium Apum in the founder's statutes; and so is John Claymand, the first president thereof, saluted by Erasmus.*

THE LIBRARY. If the schools may be resembled to the ring, the library may the better be compared to the diamond therein ; not so much for the bunching forth beyond the rest, as the preciousness thereof, in some respects equalling any in Europe, and in most kinds exceeding all in England : yet our land hath been ever DidoBe3loc, much given to the love of books; and let us fleet the cream of a few of the primest libraries in all ages.

In the infancy of Christianity, that at York bare away the bell, founded by archbishop Egbert (and so highly praised by Alevinus in his epistle to Charles the Great); but long since abolished.

Before the dissolution of abbeys, when all cathedrals and convents had their libraries, that at Ramsey was the greatest Rabbin, spake the most and best Hebrew, abounding in Jewish and not defective in other books.

In that age of lay-libraries (as I may term them, as belonging to the city) I behold that pertaining to Guildhall as a principal, founded by Richard Whittington,

whence three cart-loads of choice manuscripts were carried in the reign of king Edward the Sixth, on the promise of [never performed] restitution.

Since the Reformation, that of Bene't in Cambridge hath for manuscripts exceeded any (thank the cost and care of Matthew Parker) collegiate library in England.

Of late, Cambridge library, augmented with the Arch-episcopal library of Lambeth, is grown the second in the land.

As for private libraries of subjects, that of treasurer Burleigh was the best, for the use of a statesman, the lord Lumlie's for an historian, the late earl of Arundel's for an herald, Sir Robert Cotton's for an antiquary, and archbishop Usher's for a divine.

Many other excellent libraries there were of particular persons : lord Brudenell's, lord Hatton's, &c. routed by our civil wars; and many books which scaped the execution are fled [transported] into France, Flanders, and other foreign parts.

To return to Oxford library, which stands like Diana amongst her nymphs, and surpasseth all the rest for rarity and multitude of books; so that, if any be wanting on any subject, it is because the world doth not afford them. This library was founded by Humphrey the good duke of Gloucester; confounded, in the reign of king Edward the Sixth, by those who

In Castigationem Chrysostomi Conclusiuncularum de Fato. † Stow, in his Survey of London.

I list not to name; re-founded by worthy Sir Thomas Bodley, and the bounty of daily benefactors.

As for the king's houses in this county, Woodstock is justly to be preferred, where the wood and water nymphs might equally be pleased in its situation. Queen Elizabeth had a great affection for this place, as one of her best remembrancers of her condition when a prisoner here (in none of the best lodgings) in the reign of her sister. Here she escaped a dangerous fire, but whether casual or intentional God knoweth. Here, hearing a milk-maid merrily singing in the park, she desired exchange of estates, preferring the poorest liberty before the richest restraint. At this day it is a fair, was formerly a fairer, fabric, if the labyrinth built here by king Henry the Second answered the character of curiosity given it by authors. But long since the labyrinth (time, without the help of Ariadne's clue of silk, can unravel and display the most intricate building) is vanished away.

Nor must Enston hard by be forgotten ; which though some sullen soul may recount amongst the costly trifles, the more ingenious do behold as Art's pretty comment, as Nature's pleasant text; both so intermingled, that art in some sort may seem natural, and nature artificial therein. It was made by Thomas Bushel, esq., sometime servant to Francis Bacon lord Verulam. Now because men's expectations are generally tired with the tedious growing of wood, here he set hedges of full growth, which thrived full well, so that where the former left no plants, the following year found trees grown to their full perfection. In a word, a melancholy mind may here feast itself to a surfeit with variety of entertainments. But rarities of this nature are never sufficiently described till beheld.

PROVERBS. “ You were born at Hogs-Norton."] This is a village, properly called Hoch-Norton, whose inhabitants (it seems formerly) were so rustical in their behaviour, that boorish and clownish people are said born at Hogs-Norton.

“To take a Burford bait."'] This it seems is a bait, not to stay the stomach but to lose the wit thereby, as resolved at last into drunkenness. If the fair-market of Burford in this county be so much guilty of this foul sin, it is high time to damn the words of this proverb, and higher to detest the practice thereof. Otherwise Burford-bait may have a hook therein, to choke such souls as swallow it, without their sincere and seasonable repentance.

“ Banbury zeal, cheese, and cakes."] I admire to find these joined together in so learned an author as Mr. Camden,* affirming that town famed for these

Britannia, in Oxfordshire, p. 376.

three things--quam malè conveniunt ! and though zeal be deservedly put first, how inconsistent is it with his gravity and goodness, to couple a spiritual grace with matters of coporeal repast : so that, if spoken in earnest, it hath more of a profane than pious pen ; if in jest, more of a libeller than historian.

But, to qualify the man, no such words are extant in the Latin Camden; where only we read, “ Nunc autem conficiendo caseo oppidum notissimum, castrum ostendit,” &c.

Secondly, it being in the English translated by Philemon Holland, was at the first (as I have been credibly informed) a literal mistake of the printers' (though not confessed in the errata) set forth in anno Domini 1608; zeal being put for veal in that place.

But what casual in that, may be suspected wilful in the next and last edition, anno 1637, where the error is continued out of design to nick the town of Banbury, as reputed then a place of precise people, and not over-conformable in their carriage. Sure I am that Banbury had a gracious, learned, and painful minister;* and this town need not be ashamed of, nor grieved at, what scoffers say or write thereof; only let them add knowledge to their zeal, and then the more of zeal the better their condition.

“He looks as the devil over Lincoln."] Some fetch the original of this proverb from a stone picture of the devil, which doth (or lately did) over look Lincoln College. Surely the architect intended it no farther than for an ordinary antic, though beholders have since applied those ugly looks to envious persons, repining at the prosperity of their neighbours, and jealous to be overtopt by their vicinity,

The Latins have many proverbs parallel hereunto, to express the ill aspects of malevolent spectators; as “ Cyclopicus obtutus," and the Cyclops, we know, were deformed at the best (envy makes a good face look ill, and a bad look worse), “Vultus f'itanicus," * Vultus Scythicus," “ Limis oculis os oblique inspicere,” “Thynni more videre” (to look like a thuny), a fish which, as Aristotle saith, hath but one eye, and that, as some will have it, on the left side; so full is malice of sinister acceptions.

To return to our English proverb, it is conceived of more antiquity than either of the fore-named colleges, though the secondary sense thereof lighted not unhappily, and that it related originally to the cathedral church in Lincoln.

Testons are gone to Oxford, † to study in Brazen-nose.”] This proverb began about the end of the reign of king Henry the Eighth, and happily ended about the middle of the reign

Mr. William Whaley, of whom hereafter in this county. † Vide supra, in Lincolnshire. * J. Heywood, in his Five Hundred Epigrams, num. 63.

of queen Elizabeth ; so that it continued in use not full fifty years.

This the occasion thereof; king Henry the Eighth, as his in-comes, so his out-goings, were greater than any English king's since the Conquest. And it belongs not to me to question the cause of either. Sure it is, as he was always taking he was always wanting; and the shower of abbey-lands being soon over his drought for money was as great as ever before. This made him resolve on the debasing thereof, testons especially (a coin worth sixpence, corruptly called tester); so that their intrinsic value was not worth above three shillings and four pence the ounce, to the present profit of the sovereign, and future loss of the subjects. Yea, so allayed they were with copper (which common people confound with brass), and looked so red therewith, that (as my author saith) “ they blushed for shame, as conscious of their own corruption."*

King Edward the Sixth and queen Mary earnestly endeavoured the reduction of money to the true standard (and indeed the coin of their stamping is not bad in itself); but could not compass the calling in of all base money, partly through the shortness of their reigns, and partly through the difficulty of the design. This, by politic degrees, was effected by queen Elizabeth, with no great prejudice to the then present age, and grand advantage to all posterity, as is justly mentioned on her monument in Westminster.

“ Send verdingales to Broad Gatest in Oxford."'] This will acquaint us with the female habit of former ages, used not only by the gadding Dinahs of that age but by most sober Sarahs of the same, so cogent is a common custom. With these verdingales the gowns of women beneath their waists were pent-housed out far beyond their bodies; so that posterity will wonder to what purpose those bucklers of pasteboard were employed.

Some deduce the name from the Belgic verd-gard (derived, they say, from virg a virgin, and garder to keep and preserve); as used to secure modesty, and keep wantons at distance. Others more truly fetch it from vertu and galle ; because the scab and bane thereof, the first inventress thereof being known for a light house-wife, who, under the pretence of modesty, sought to cover her shame and the fruits of her wantonness.

These by degrees grew so great, that their wearers could not enter (except going sidelong) at any ordinary door; which gave

* J. Heywood, ibidem, num. 64.

Pembroke College, in Oxford, which originally belonged to the priory of St. Frideswide, was for a long time known by the name of Segrim, or corruptly, Segreve Hall; and afterwards received the name of Broad-gates, from the wide form of its entrance, “ Aula cum lata portâ, or Aula latè portensis." (Chalmer's History of the Colleges, &c. of Oxford, 1810, vol. 11. p. 417.) --Ed.

I J. Heywood, in his Five Hundred Epigrams, num. 63.

the occasion to this proverb. But these verdingales have been disused this forty years; whether because women were convinced in their consciences of the vanity of this, or allured in their fancies with the novelty of other fashions, I will not determine.

Chronica si penses, cum pugnent Oxonienses

Post aliquot menses volat ira per Angliginenses.
" Mark the chronicles aright,

When Oxford scholars fall to fight,
Before many months expir'd
England will with war be fir’d.")

I confess Oxonienses may import the broils betwixt the townsmen of Oxford, or townsmen and scholars; but I conceive it properly to intend the contests betwixt scholars and scholars ; which were observed predictional, as if their animosities were the index of the volume of the land. Such who have time may exactly trace the truth hereof through our English histories. Sure I am, there were shrewd bickerings betwixt the southern and northern men in Oxford in the reign of king Henry the Third, not long before the bloody war of the barons did begin. The like happened twice under king Richard the Second, which seemed to be the van-courier of the fatal fights betwixt Lancaster and York. However, this observation holds not negatively; all being peaceable in that place, and no broils at Oxford sounding the alarum to our late civil dissensions.

PRINCES. RICHARD, son to king Henry the Second and queen Eleanor, was (the sixth king since the Conquest, but second native of England) born in the city of Oxford, anno 1157. Whilst a prince, he was undutiful to his father; or, to qualify the matter, over-dutiful to his mother, whose domestic quarrels he always espoused. To expiate his offence, when king, he, with Philip king of France, undertook a voyage to the Holy Land, where, through the treachery or Templary cowardice of the Greeks, diversity of the climate, distance of the place, and differences betwixt Christian princes, much time was spent, a mass of money expended, many lives lost, some honour achieved, but little profit produced. Going to Palestine he suffered shipwreck and many mischiefs on the coast of Cyprus; coming for England through Germany, he was tossed with a worse land tempest, being (in pursuance of an old grudge betwixt them) taken prisoner by Leopoldus duke of Austria. Yet this Cæur de Lion, or Lionhearted king (for so was he commonly called) was no less lion (though now in a grate) than when at liberty, abating nothing of his high spirit in his behaviour. The duke did not undervalue this his royal prisoner, prizing his person at ten years' purchase, according to the (then) yearly revenue of the English Crown. This ransom of a hundred thousand pounds being paid, he came home; first reformed himself, and then mended many

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