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11. WILLIAM TAVERNER, Arm.-This was he who, in the year of his sheriffalty, came to Oxford, and went up into the pulpit at St. Mary's with a sword by his side, and a gold chain about his neck; where he made a sermon (or an oration rather) to the university, the stuff, or rather bombace, whereof we have set down in our "Ecclesiastical History." Now, though this was an odd act, wherein his zeal was conceived by most to trespass on his discretion, yet was it borne the better in those darker days from a person well affected in religion, and abhorring to invade the ministerial function.

18. ROBERT DOYLE, Mil.-This year (if I mistake not) were the Black Assizes at Oxford, wherein (contrary to the common course) the prisoners caused the death of the judge (chiefbaron Bell), the sheriff, some of the lawyers, many of the justices, and most of the jury; besides other persons of quality there present. It was generally imputed to the stench of the prisoners' clothes and bodies; for, whereas other offensive smells are open enemies, and, violently assaulting the brain, warn men in some sort to avoid or resist them; a gaol-stench treacherously pretendeth alliance (as made of man-sweat), and so insinuates itself with the less suspicion and more danger into the spirits.

31. WILLIAM CLARKE, Arm.-He was a son, or (if the same with Sir William Clarke, sheriff in the 10th of king James), grand-child to Sir John Clarke of Northamptonshire in the 21st of king Henry the Eighth; whose arms, with the honourable augmentation, and the worthy cause thereof, are there largely described.

36. RICHARD FIENNES, Mil.-He was a worthy gentleman; and bred fellow (being the founder's kinsman) of New College in Oxford. He was also lineally descended from James lord Say and Sele, treasurer of England in the reign of king Henry the Sixth; and, in consideration thereof, was, 1 Jacobi, created


lord Say and Sele. He died anno domini 1612. William Fiennes, his eldest son, was since created viscount Say and Sele, and is still alive, 1661.*


3. RICHARD WENMAN, Mil.-This worthy knight was by king Charles the First created first baron Wenman of Chilmaynam in the county of Dublin, and then viscount Wenman, of Tuant in the county of Galway, both in the kingdom of Ireland, by letters patent, dated at Cambray the 25th of July, 1628, 4 Caroli.



As for the poorer sort of husbandmen in this county, I wish there may be more Sir Henry Kebles for their sakes. This knight (though a native of London, and lord mayor thereof) had such an affection for this and Warwickshire, that he singled out a hundred and fifty of the poorest husbandmen therein, and gave each of them a new plough-share and a new coulter of iron, and, in my mind, that is the most charitable charity which enableth decayed industry to follow its vocation.


Andrew ALLAM, divine and biographer, assisted Anthony Wood; born at Garsington 1655; died 1685.

Sir Wm. BEECHEY, R.A., celebrated painter; born at Burford 1753; died 1839.

William BERRIMAN, divine, author of "Sermons ;" born at Banbury 1688.

Charles DAVENANT, political economist; born at Oxford 1656;

died 1714.

Sir William DAVENANT, dramatist and poet-laureat, loyalist; born at Oxford 1605; died 1668.

Rev. Mr. DE LA FIELD, historian of his native parish; born at

Hasely 1690.

Nathaniel FIENNES, son of lord Say and Sele, parliamentarian officer; born at Broughton 1603; died 1669.

John FREE, divine, political and miscellaneous writer; born at Oxford 1711.

William GREENHILL, divine, commentator on Ezekiel; died 1676.

He died 1662.-ED.

† Stow's Survey of London, p. 89.

Warren HASTINGS, for many years governor of the East Indies, subsequently impeached, but acquitted; born at Churchill 1732; died 1818.

Peter HEYLIN, sub-dean of Westminster, author of "Cosmography;" born at Burford 1600; died 1662.

Sir John HOLT, patriotic lord chief justice of the King's Bench; born at Thame 1642; died 1709.

Charles JENKINSON, first earl of Liverpool, statesman; born at Walcot 1727; died 1808.

Mary LATTER, dramatist and satirist; born at Henley-uponThames 1725.

William LENTHAL, speaker of the Long Parliament; born at Henley-upon-Thames 1591; died 1663.

Marchmont NEEDHAM, political writer during the civil war; born at Burford 1620; died 1678.

William OLDYS, biographer and herald; born at Adderbury 1686.

John OWEN, independent divine, scholar and author; born at Stadhampton 1616; died 1683.

John PHILIPS, poet, author of "Cyder" and "Splendid Shilling;" born at Bampton 1676; died 1708.

Edward POCOCKE, divine, orientialist, and archbishop Laud's
first professor of Arabic; born at Oxford 1604; died 1691.
Thomas RANDOLPH, divine and author; died 1788.
John Wilmot earl of ROCHESTER, wit and poet; born at

Ditchley 1648; died 1680.

Dr. John ROGERS, divine, author on "The Visible and Invisible Church;" born at Ensham 1679; died 1729.

Henry Rose, author of a philosophical essay for the re-union of languages; born at Pirton 17th century.

John SIBTHORP, physician, botanist, and traveller; born at Oxford 1758; died 1796.

Edward WARD, miscellaneous writer, author of "London Spy;" born 1667; died 1731.

Anthony à WOOD, industrious biographer and antiquary; born at Oxford 1632; died 1695.

Benjamin WOODROFFE, Principal of Gloucester Hall, scholar; born at Oxford; died 1711.

Wm. SMITH, LL.D., naturalist and geologist; born at Churchill 1769; died 1840.

Of Oxfordshire there is no complete topographical history. In 1705, however, Dr. Plot published the Natural History of the county; and in 1813 some general notices appeared in the Beauties of England and Wales, by J. N. Brewer. In 1823 also appeared Skelton's engraved Illustrations of Oxfordshire, with descriptive and historical observations. Of the town and university various accounts have appeared; as Pointer's Oxoniensis Academia (1749); Ant. à Wood's History of the University, by J. Gutch (1796); Skelton's Oxonia Antiqua Restaurata; Rev. T. Warton's History of Kiddington (1815); Dunkin's Histories of the Hundreds of Bullington and Ploughley, and of Bicester, &c. (1823).—ED.


RUTLANDSHIRE is, by a double diminutive, called by Mr. Camden, 66 Angliæ Provinciola minima." Indeed it is but the pestle of a lark, which is better than a quarter of some bigger bird, having the most cleanly profit in it; no place, so fair for the rider, being more fruitful for the abider therein.

Banishing the fable of king Rott, and their fond conceit who will have Rutland so called from roet, the French word for a wheel, from the rotundity thereof, (being in form almost exactly orbicular); it is so termed quasi Red-land; for as nature kept a dye-vat herein, a reddish tincture discoloureth the earth, stones, yea the very fleeces of the sheep feeding therein. If the Rabbins' observation be true, who distinguish betwixt Arets, the general element of the earth, and Adamah, red ground, from which Adam was taken and named; making the latter the former refined; Rutland's soil, on the same reason, may lay claim to more than ordinary purity and perfection.


Burgley on the Hill belonged formerly to the lord Harrington, but since so beautified with buildings by the duke of Buckingham, that it was inferior to few for the house, superior to all for the stable; where horses (if their pabulum so plenty as their stabulum stately) were the best accommodated in England. But, alas! what saith Menedemus to Chremas in the comedy? "Filium unicum adolescentulum habeo. Ah, quid dixi habere me? immo habui." So may Rutland say, "I have, yea I had, one most magnificent house: this Burgley being since demolished in our civil war ;* so just was the poet's ancient invective,

*Αρες, ἄρες, βροτολοιγὲ, μιαιφόνε τειχεσιπλῆτα.

"Mars, Mars, bane of men, slaughter-stain'd spoiler of houses."

But when we have first sufficiently bemoaned the loss of so many worthy men in our late war, if then we have still any sor

• Daniel earl of Nottingham afterwards purchased this estate, and rebuilt the house, which has a park inclosed by a wall of five or six miles round. It has since belonged to the earl of Winchelsea.-ED.

row left, and tears to spare, we will spend them in lamenting the raising and ruining of so many stately structures.


How it will appear to the reader I know not; but it is wonderful in my apprehension, that this county, so pleasant, so fruitful, almost in the middle of England, had not one absolute or entire abbey therein; producing only two small appurtenances (of inconsiderable value) to convents in other counties: viz.

Okeham, under the custody of the priory of St. Anne by Coventry, founded by William Dalby, for two chaplains and twelve poor; receiving in all one and twenty pounds per annum.

Brook, a cell to Killingworth, founded by Walkeline de Ferrers, baron of Okeham, for black canons, valued, at the dissolution, at forty-three pounds thirteen shillings and four-pence.

The like cannot be paralleled in England, choose so great a parcel of good ground where you please. Shew me so fair a bunch of sweet grapes which had no more flies to suck them. Nor can I conjecture any competent cause thereof, except because Edward the Confessor, by his will, gave all Rutland to Westminster church; which, though rescinded by king William the Conqueror, yet other convents perchance might be scrupulous to accept what once belonged to another foundation.

"Rutland Raddleman."]

I meet in an author with this blazon, as he terms it, of Rutlandshire, though I can scarcely recover the meaning thereof.

Rad here is the same with red (only more broadly pronounced); as Radcliffe, de rubro clivo, Redcliffe. Raddleman then is a Reddleman, a trade (and that a poor one) only in this county, whence men bring on their backs a pack of red stones, or ochre, which they sell to the neighbouring countries for the marking of sheep, well nigh as discernible (and far less hurtful to the wool) as pitch-brands made on their fleeces.



ST. TIBBA. Because this county is princeless, I mean, affords no royal natives, we begin with Saints; and here almost we are at a loss, finding but one worshipped therein, and probably a native thereof. But seriously peruse, I pray, the words of our author, speaking of Rihall, a village in this county:

"Where, when superstition had so bewitched our ancestors, that the multitude of their petty saints had well near taken quite away the true God, one Tibba, a petty saint or goddess, reputed to be the tutelar patroness of Hawking, was of fowlers and falconers worshipped as a second Diana."

† Camden's Britannia, in Rutlandshire, p. 526.


Drayton's Polyolbion.

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