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know that afterwards he went to Rome (no such clean washing as in the water of Tiber), and thence returned as free from fault as when first born. Thus cleansed from the leprosy of simony, he came back into England, removed his bishopric from Thetford to Norwich, laid the first stone, and in effect finished the fair cathedral therein, and built five beautiful parish churches. He died anno Domini 1119. See more of his character, on just occasion, in Suffolk, under the title of Prelates.

[AMP.] OWEN OGLETHORP was (saith my author)* born of good parentage ; and, I conjecture, a native of this county, finding Owen Oglethorp his kinsman twice high-sheriff thereof in the reign of queen Elizabeth. He was president of Magdalen College in Oxford, dean of Windsor, and at last made bishop of Carlisle by queen Mary. A good-natured man, and when single by himself very pliable to please queen Elizabeth, whom he crowned queen, which the rest of his order refused to do: but, when in conjunction with other popish bishops, such principles of stubbornness were distilled unto him, that it cost him his deprivation. However, an authort tells me, that the queen had still a favour for him, intending his restitution either to his own or a better bishopric, upon the promise of his general conformity, had he not died suddenly, of an apoplexy, 1559.

SINCE THE REFORMATION. John UNDERHILL was born in the city of Oxford ;£ first bred in New College, and afterwards rector of Lincoln College in that university; chaplain to queen Elizabeth, and esteemed a good preacher in those days.

The bishopric of Oxford had now been void twenty-two years; and some suspected that so long a vacancy would at last terminate in a nullity, and that see be dissolved. The cause that church was so long a widow was the want of a competent estate to prefer her. At last the queen, 1589, appointed John Underhill bishop thereof. An ingenious pen $ (but whose accusative suggestions are not always to be believed) hinteth a suspicion, as if he gave part of the little portion this church had to a great courtier, which made the match betwixt them. He died 1592 ; and lieth buried in the middle choir of Christ's Church.

John BANCROFT was born at Ascot in this county; and was advanced, by archbishop Bancroft his uncle, from a student in Christ Church, to be master of University college in Oxford. Here it cost him much pains and expense in a long suit to reco

Bishop Godwin, in his Bishops of Carlisle.
† Sir John Harrington, in his Addition to Bishop Godwin.

Register of New College, anno 1563.
Sir John Harrington, in the Bishops of Oxford.

ver and settle the ancient lands of that foundation. Afterwards he was made bishop of Oxford ; and, during his sitting in that see, he renewed no leases, but let them run out for the advantage of his successor. He obtained the royalty of Shot-over for, and annexed the vicarage of Cudsden 'to, his bishopric; where he built a fair palace and a chapel, expending on both about three thousand five hundred pounds; “ cujus munificentiæ (said the Oxford orator of him to the king at Woodstock) debemus, quod incerti laris mitra surrexerit è pulvere in Palatium.” But now, by a retrograde motion, that fair building “ è Palatio recidit in pulverem,” being burned down to the ground in the late wars; but for what advantage, as I do not know, so I list not to inquire. This bishop died anno Domini 1640.

STATESMEN. Sir Dudley CARLETON, Knight, was born in this county ; bred a student in Christ Church in Oxford. He afterwards was related as a secretary to Sir Ralph Winwood, ambassador in the Low-Countries, when king James resigned the cautionary towns to the states. Here he added so great experience to his former learning, that afterwards our king employed him for twenty years together ambassador in Venice, Savoy, and the United Provinces ; Anne Garrard his lady (co-heir to George Garrard esq.) accompanying him in all his travels, as is expressed in her epitaph in Westminster Abbey.

He was by king Charles the First created baron of Imbercourt in Surrey, and afterwards viscount Dorchester; marrying for his second wife the daughter of Sir Henry Glenham, the relict of Paul Viscount Banning, who survived him. He succeeded the lord Conway (when preferred president of the council) in the secretaryship of state, being sworn at Whitehall, December 14, 1628. He died without issue, anno Domini 163 ., assigning his burial (as appears on her tomb) with his first wife, which no doubt was performed accordingly.

SOLDIERS.

OF THE NORRISES AND THE KNOWLLS. No county in England can present such a brace of families contemporaries, with such a bunch of brethren on either, for eminent achievements. So great their states and stomachs, that they often justled together; and no wonder if Oxfordshire wanted room for them, when all England could not hold them together. Let them be considered, root and branch, first severally, then conjunctively.

Father.-HENY lord Norris (descended from the viscounts Lovels) whose father died in a manner martyr for the queen's mother, executed about the business of Anne Bullen.

Mother.- Margaret, one of the daughters and heirs of John

lord Williams of Tame, keeper of queen Elizabeth whilst in restraint under her sister, and civil unto her in those dangerous days.

Thus queen Elizabeth beheld them both, not only with gracious but grateful eyes.

Ricot in this county was their chief habitation.

Their issue.-1. William, marshal of Barwick, who died in Ireland, and was father to Francis, afterward earl of Berkshire. 2. Sir John, who had three horses in one day killed under him in a battle against the Scots.* But more of him hereafter. 3. Sir Thomas, president of Munster. Being hurt in a fight, and counting it a scratch rather than a wound, he scorned to have it plastered; as if the balsam of his body would cure itself; but it rankled, festered, gangrened, and he died thereof. 4. Sir Henry, who died about the same time in the same manner. 5. Maximilian, who was slain in the war of Britain.

6. Sir Edward, who led the front at the taking of the Groyn; and fought so valiantly at the siege of Ostend. Of all six, he only survived his parents.

Father.—Sir FRANCIS KNOWLLS, treasurer to the queen's household, and knight of the Garter (who had been an exile in Germany under queen Mary) deriving himself from Sir Robert Knowlls, that conquering commander in France.

Mother.- ... Cary, sister to Henry lord Hundson, and cousingerman to queen Elizabeth, having Mary Bullen for her mother.

Thus the husband was allied to the queen in conscience (fellow sufferers for the Protestant cause); the wife in kindred.

Greys in this county was their chief dwelling.

Their issue.-1. Sir Henry, whose daughter and sole heir was married to the lord Paget. 2. Sir William, treasurer of the household to king James, by whom he was created baron Knowlls, May 3, 1603 ; viscount Wallingford, 1616; and by king Charles I. in the first of his reign, earl of Banbury. 3. Sir Robert, father to Sir Robert Knowlls of Greys, now living. 4. Sir Francis, who was living at, and chosen a member of, the late long Parliament; since dead, aged 99. 5. Sir Thomas, a commander in the Low Countries. 6. Lettice, though of the weaker sex, may well be recounted with her brethren, as the strongest pillar of the family. Second wife she was to Robert Dudley, eart of Leicester, and (by a former husband) mother to Robert Devereux, earl of Essex; both prime favourites in their generations,

The Norrises were all Martis pulli, (men of the sword), and never out of military employment. The Knowlls were rather valiant men than any great soldiers, as little experienced in war. Queen Elizabeth loved the Knowlls for themselves; the Nor

* Camden's Elizabeth, in anno 1578.

rises for themselves and herself, being sensible that she needed such martial men for her service. The Norrises got more honour abroad; the Knowlls more profit at home, conversing constantly at court; and no wonder if they were the warmest, who sat next to the fire.

There was once a challenge passed betwixt them at certain exercises to be tried between the two fraternities, the queen and their aged fathers being to be the spectators and judges, till it quickly became a flat quarrel betwixt them.* Thus, though at the first they may be said to have fenced with rebated rapiers and swords buttoned up, in merriment only to try their skill and strength; they soon fell to it at sharps indeed, seeking for many years to supplant one another, such the heart-smoking and then heart-burning betwixt them. And although their inclinations kept them asunder, the one brotherhood coming seldom to court, the other seldomer to camp; yet the Knowlls are suspected to have done the Norrises bad offices, which at last did tend to their mutual hurt ; so that it had been happy for both, had these their contests been seasonably turned into a cordial compliance.

Sir John NORRIS must be resumed, that we may pay a greater tribute of respect to his memory. He was a most accomplished general, both for a charge which is the sword, and a retreat which is the shield, of war. By the latter he purchased to himself immortal praise, when in France he brought off a small handful of English from a great armful of enemies; fighting as he retreated, and retreating as he fought; so that always his rear affronted the enemy; a retreat worth ten victories got by surprise, which speak rather the fortune than either the valour or discretion of a general.

He was afterwards sent over with a great command into Ireland, where his success neither answered to his own care, nor others' expectation. Indeed hitherto Sir John had fought with right-handed enemies in France and the Netherlands; who was now to fight with left-handed foes, for so may the wild Irish well be termed (so that this great master of defence was now to seek a new guard), who could lie on the coldest earth, swim through the deepest water, run over what was neither earth nor water, I mean bogs and marshes. He found it far harder to find out than fight his enemies, they so secured themselves in fastnesses. Supplies, sown thick in promises, came up thin in performances; so slowly were succours sent unto him.

At last a great lord was made lieutenant of Ireland, of an opposite party to Sir John ; there being animosities in the court of queen Elizabeth (as well as of later princes), though her general good success rendered them the less to the public notice

• Fragmenta Regalia, in Knowlls.

с

VOL. III.

of posterity. It grieved Sir John to the heart, to see one of an opposite faction should be brought over liis head, in so much that some conceive his working soul broke the cask of his body, as wanting a vent for his grief and anger; for, going up into his chamber, at the first hearing of the news, he suddenly died, anno Domini 1597.

Queen Elizabeth used to call the lady Margaret, his mother, her own crow, being (as it seemeth) black in complexion (a colour which no whit unbecame the faces of her martial issue) ; and, upon the news of his death, sent this letter unto her, which I have transcribed from an authentic copy.

To the Lady Norris. “ My own Crow:

22d Sept. 1597. “ Harm not yourself for bootless help, but shew a good example to comfort your dolorous yoke-fellow. Although we have deferred long to represent to you our grieved thoughts, because we liked, full ill to yield you the first reflection of misfortune, whom we have always rather sought to cherish and comfort; yet knowing now, that necessity must bring it to your ear, and nature consequently must move both grief and passion in your heart: we resolved no longer to smother, neither our care for your sorrow, or the sympathy of our grief for your loss. Wherein, if it be true that society in sorrow works diminution, we do assure you by this true messenger of our mind, that nature can have stirred no more dolorous affection in you as a mother for a dear son, than gratefulness and memory of his service past hath wrought in us his sovereign apprehension of our miss for so worthy a servant. But now that nature's common work is done, and he that was born to die hath paid his tribute, let that Christian discretion stay the flux of your immoderate grieving, which hath instructed you, both by example and knowledge, that nothing in this kind hath happened but by God's divine providence. And let these lines from your loving and gracious sovereign serve to assure you, that there shall ever appear the lively character of our estimation of him that was, in our gracious care of you and yours that are left, in valuing rightly all their faithful and honest endeavours. More at this time we will not write of this unpleasant subject; but have dispatched this gent. to visit both your lord and you, and to condole with you in the true sense of your love; and to pray that the world may see, what time cureth in a weak mind, that discretion and moderation helpeth in you in this accident, where there is so just cause to demonstrate true patience and moderation.

“ Your gracious and loving sovereign, E. R.” Now, though nothing more consolatory and pathetical could be written from a prince, yet his death went so near to the heart of the lord, his ancient father, that he died soon after.

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