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others, mere fruges consumere nati,* and otherwise good for nothing, till by their death their estates, like the carcass of the negro's gentleman-hog, come to be cut up.

With regard to the encouragements for strangers from government, they are really only what are de

rived from good laws and liberty. Strangers are - welcome, because there is room enough for them all, and therefore the old inhabitants are not jealous of them; the laws protect them sufficiently, so that they have no need of the päironage of great men; and every one wiil enjoy securely the profits of his iiklustry. But if he does not bring a fortune with him he must work and be industrious to live. One or two years residence give him all the rights of a citizen; but the government does not at present, whatever it may have done in former times, hire people to become settlers, by paying their passage, giving land. negroes, utensils, stock, or any other kind of emolu. ment whatsoever. In short, America is the land of lalour, and by no rjeans what the English call Lub. berland, and ihe French Pays de Cocagne, where the streets are said to be paved with half-peck loaves, the houses tiled with pancakes, and where the fowls ly about ready roasted, crying, Come eat me!

Who then are the kind of persons to whom an enigration to America may be advantageous? And what are the advantages they nay reasonably expect ?

Land being cheap in that country, from the vast foresis still vuid of inhabitants, and rot likely to be occupied in an age to come, insointich that the property of an hundred acres of fertile soil, full of wood, may be obtained near the frontiers, in many places, for cight nr ten guineas, hearty young labouring men, who understand the husbandry of corn and cattle, which is nearly the same in that country as in Europe, inay easily establish themselves there. A little money, saved of the good wages they receive there while they work for others, enables them to buy the


· · · · · · · · · · Merily to ent up the corn.


iand and begin their plantation, in which they are assisted by the good will of their neighbours, and sume credit. Multitudes of poor people from Eng. land, Ireland, Scotland, and Germany, have by this ineans in a few years became wealthy fariners, who in their own countries, where ail the lands are fully occupied, and the wages oi labour low, could never have emerged from the mean condition wherein they were born.

Froin the salubrity of the air, the healthiness of the climate, the plenty of good provisions, and the encouragement to early marriages, by the certainty of subsistence in cultivating the earth, the increase of inhabitants by natural generation is very rapid in America, and becomes still more so by the accession of strangers: hence there is a continual demand for more artisans of all the necessary and useful kinds, to si pply those cultivators of the earth with houses, and with furniture and utensils of the grosser sorts, which cannot so well be brought from Europe. To lerahiy good workinen in any of tł.ose mechanic arts, are sure to find employ, and to be well paid for their work, there being no restraints preventing strangers froin exercising any art they understand, nor any permission necessary. If they are poor, they begin first as servants or journeymen; and if they are sober, industrious, and frugal, they soon become masters, establish theinselves in business, marry, raise tamilies, and wecoine respectable citizens.

Also persons of moderate families and capitals, who having a number of children to provide for, are desirous of bringing them up to industry, and to secure estates to their posterity, have opportunities of doing it in America, which Europe does not afford. There they may be taught anii practise profitable mechanic ats, without incurring disgrace on that account; but, on the contrary, acquiring respect to such abilities. Tliere small capitals laid out in lands, which daily become more valuable by the increase of people, afford a solid prospect of ainple for. tunes thereu fter for those children. The writer of this 108 known several instances of large tracts of land bought on what was then the frontiers of Penn

sylvania, for ten pounds per hundred acres, which, after twenty years, when the settlements had been extended far beyond thein, sold readily, without any improvement made upon them, for three pounds per acre. The acre in America is the same with the English acre, or the acre of Norinandy.

Those who desire to understand the state of yo. vernment in America, would do well to read the cor. Situ!ions of the several States, and the articles of @nfederation which bind the whole together for geo neral purposes, under the direction of one Assembly, called the Congress. These constitutions have been printed, by order of Congress, in America; two editions of them hare been printei: in London; and a good translation of thein into French, has lateiy been published at Paris.

Several of the princes of Europe having of late, froin an opinion of advaillage to arise by producing adl commodities and manufactures within their own dominions, so as to diminish or render useless their inportations, have endeavoured to entice workinen froin other countries, by high salaries, privileges, &c. Mary persons pretending to be skille : in various great manufactures, iniagining that America inust be in want of them, and that the Congress would probably be disposed to initate the princes abovementioned, have proposed to go over on condition of having their passage paid, lands given, salaries appointed, exclusive privileges for terms of years, &c. Such persons, on reading the articles of confederation, wul find that the Congress have no power committed to thein, or money put into their hands, for such purposes; and hat, if any s'ich encourageinent is given, it must be Dy the government of some separate state. This, however, has rarely been done in America ; and when it has been done, it has rarely succeeded, so as to establish a manufacture, which the country was not yet so ripe for as to encourage private persons to set it ur; labour being generally too dear, difficult to be kept together, every one desiring to be a master, and the cheapness of land inclining many to leave trades for agriculture. Some indeed have inet with success,




and are carried on to advantage; but they are gene rally such as require only a few hands, or whereic great part of the work is performed by machines. Goods that are bulky, and of so small a value as not

the well 10 bear the expense of freight, may often be made

pric cheaper in the country than they can be imported;

pro and "he manufacture of such goods will be profitable

ma wirerever there is a sufficient demand. The farmers

pro 11. Ainerica produce indeed a good deal of wool and

bad fia i, and none is exported—it is all worked up; but it is in the way of doinestic manufacture, for the use

mis of he family. The buying up quantities of wool and I by: fa., with the design to employ spinners, weavers, vor &, and form greal establishments, producing quan thar tities of linen and woollen goods for sale, has been in sei eral times attempted in different provinces; but

econ thi se projects have generally failed, goods of equal

and vaine being imported cheaper. And when the gove.aments have been solicited to support such schemes

In by encouragements, in money, or by imposing duties 'trade en importation of such goods, it has been generally dilha relused, on this principle, that is the country is ripe then for the manufacture, it may be carried on by privately

livel: persons to advantage, and, if not, it is folly to think liv of furcing nature. Greai establishments of manufacture require great numbers of poor do the work to small wages; those poor are to be found in Europe, but will not be found in America, till the lands are

sainti all taken up and cultivated, and the excess of people who cannot get land want employment. The manufacture of silk, they say, is watı:ral in France, as that of cloth in England, because each country produces in plenty the first material; but if England vill have a manufacture of silk as well as that cloth, and France of cloth as well as that of silk these unnatural operations must be supported by mutual prohibitions, or high duties on the importa tions of each others gnous; by wbich means the workmen are enabled to tax the home consumer by greater prices, while the higher wages they receive makcs them neither happier nor richer, since they only drink mure and work less. Therefore the go vernment in America do nothing to encourage such

rivals upon which Hence

or thi crease and a hope

of the Hence instru

prenti Othe

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and i

prnjeels. The people by this means are not imposed. on either by the merchant or mechanic: if the merchant deinands too much profit on imported shoes, they buy of the shoemaker; and if he asks too high a price, they take them of the merchant: thus the two professions are checks on each cther. The shoemaker however has, on the whole, a considerable profit upon his labour in America, beyond what he had in Europe, as he can add to his price a sun nearly equal to all the expenses of freight and com mission, risk or assurance, &c. necessarily charger by the merchant. And the case is the same with the workinan in every other mechanic art. Hence it is, that the artisans generally Hive better and more easily in America than in Europe; and such as are good economists make a comfortable provision for age, and for their children. Such may, therefore move with advantage to America. - In the old long-setiled countries of Europe, all arts,

trades, professions, farins, &c. are s7 full, that it is difficult for a poor man who has children to place them where they may gain, or learn to gain, a decent livelihood. The artisans, who fear creating future rivals in business, refuse to take apprentices, but upon conditions of money, maintenance or the like, which the parents are unable to comply with. Hence the youth are dragged up in ignorance of every gainfulart, und obliged to become soldiers, or servants, or thieyes, for a subsistence. In America the rapid in. crease of inhabitants takes away that fear of rivalship, and artisans willingly receive apprentices from the hope of profit by their labour, the reinainder of the time stipulated, after they shall be instructed. { Hence it is easy for poor families to get their children instructed; for the artisars are so desirous ol ape

prentices, that many of them will even give money - io :he parents, to have boys from ten to filisen years

of age bound apprentices to them, till the age of twenty-one; and many poor parents have, by that means, on their arrival in the country, raised money enough to buy land sufficient to establish themselves, and to subsist the rest of the family by agriculture.

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