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al than than those of other countries, nations, andages enjoving in the same degree the great blessings of political liberty.

Some indeed ainong us are not so much grieved. for the present state of our affairs, as apprehensive for the future. The growth of luxury alarms thein, and they think we are from inal alone in the high road to ruin. Thy observe, that no revenue is sufficient without economy, and that the most plentiful income of a whole people froin the natural productions of their country may be dissipated in vain and neede less expenses; and poverty be introduced in the place of affluence. This may be possible. It however, rarely happens ; for there seeins 10 be in every nation a greater proportion of nudustry and frugality, which tend to enrich, thau of ireness and prošligal. ity, which occasion poverly; so that upon the whole there is a continual accumulation. Reflect what Spain, Gaul, Germany, and Brtiain were in the time of the Romans, inhabited by people little richer than our savages, and consider the wealth that they at present possess, in numerous well-built cities, im. proved farms, rich movtables, magazines stocked with valuable manufactures, to say nothing or plate, jewels and coined money; and all this, notwithstanding their bad, wastefui, plundering governments, and their mad destructive wars; and yet luxury and extravagant living has never suffered much restraint in those countries. Tien consider the great proportion of industrious frugal farmers ivhabiting the interior parts of these Awierican States, and of whom the hecy of our nation consists, and judge whether it is possible that the luxury of our seaports can be sufficient o ruin such a country. Tithe importation of foreign luxuries conld ruin à people, we should probably have been ruined long ago; for the British natior claimed a right, and practised it, of importing among us not only the superfluities of their own proQuction, but those of every nation under heaven; we bought and consumed them, and yet we fourished ali grew rich. At prese!ıt our independent govern ments inav do what we could not theii do, discourage by heavy duties, or prevent by heavy prohi!itions,

such importations, and thereby grow richer :-if, in s deed, which may admit of dispute, the desire of

adorning ourselves with fine clothes, possessing fine $t furniture, with elegant houses, &c. is not, by strong da ly inciting to labour and industry, the occasion of

producing a greater value than is contn ued in the gratification of that desire.

The agriculture and fisheries of the United States * are the great sources of our increasing wealth. He

that puts a secd into the carth is recompensel, per haps, by receiving forty out of it, and he who draws a fish out of our water draws up a piece of silver.

Let us (and there is no doubt but we shall be at 108 tentive to these, and then the power of rivals, with

all their restraining aut prohibiting acis. cannot much hurt us. We are scns of the earth and sear, and, like Anteus in the fable, if in wresaling with a Hercules, we now and then receive a fall, the fourn of our parents will communicate to us fresh strpuri and vigour to renew the contes



S. MANY persons in Europe have directly, or by let

iers, expressed to the writer of this, who is well acquainted with North America, their desire oi transporting and establisiing themselves in that country but who appear to lave formed, through ignorance mistaken ideas and expectations of what is to be ob tained there; he thinks it may be useful, and preven' inconvenient, expensive, and fruitless removals and voyages of improper persons, ii be gives some clearer notions of that part of the world than appear to have litherto prevailed.

He finds it is imagined by numbers, that the inhabitants of North America are rich, capable of rewarding, and disposed to reward, all sorts of ingenuity; that way are at the same time ignorant of all the scien. ces, andconsequently that strangers, possessing talents in the nelles-lettres, fine arts, &c. must be highly csleemed, and so well paid as to become easily rich themselves; that there are also abundance of pro. fitable offices to be disposed of which the natives are not qualified to fill; and that having few persons of family among them, strangers of birth must be great. ly respected, and of course easily obtain the best of chose offices, which will inake all their fortunes: that the govertiments too, to encourage emigrations from Europe, not only pay the expense of personal transportation, but give lands gratis to strangers, with negroes to work for them, utensils of husbandry, and stocks of cattle. These are all wild imaginations; and those who go America with expectations found. ed upon them, will surely find themselves disappointed.

The truth is, that though there are in that country

few people so miserable as the poor of Europe, there are also very few that in Europe would be called rich: it is rather a general happy mediocrity that prevails. There are few great proprietors of the soil, and few tenants; most people cultivate their own lands, or follow some handicraft or merchandise; very few rich enough to live idly upon their rents or incomes, or to pay the high prices given in Europe for painting, statutes, architecture, and the other works of art that are inore curious than useful Hence the natural genuises that have arisen in Annerica, with such talents, have uniformly quitted that country for Europe, where they can be more suitably rewarded. It is true that letters and mathematical knowledge are in esteem there, but they are at the same time more common than is apprehended; their being already existing nine coeges, or universities, viz. four in New England, and one in each of the provinces of New York, New Jersy, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia--all furnished with learned professors; besides a number of smaller acadamies : these cducate many of their youth in the languages, and thuse sciences that qualify men for the professions of divi. nity, law or physic. Strangers, indeed, are by no means excluded from exercising those professions; and the quick increase of inhabitants every where gives them a chance of employ, which they have in common with the natives. Of civil offices or employments, there are few; no superfious ones, as in Europe ; and it is a rule established in some of the States, that no office should be so profitable as to make it desirable. The 36th article of the constitu. tion of Pennsylvania runs expressly in these words : “ As every freeman, to preserva: bis independence (i; he has not a sufficient estate,) ought to have some profession, calling, trade, or farm, whereby he may honesuly subsist, there can be no necessity fur, nor use in establishing, offices of profit; the usual effects of which are dependence and servility; unbecoming freemen, in the possessors and expectanıs; faction, contention, corruptiun, and disorder among the people. Wherefore, whenever an office, through in.

crease of fees or otherwise, becomes so profitable as to occasion many to apply for it, the profits ought te be lessened hy the legislature."

These ideas prevailing inore or less in the United States, it cannot be worth any man's while, who has a meaus of living at home, io expatriate himself in hopes of obtaining a profitable civil office in Ainerica; and as to military offices, they are at an end with the war, the armics being disbanded. Much less is it advisable for a person to gu thither, who has no other quality to recommend him than his birth. In Europe it has indeed its value; but it is a commodi. ty that cannot be carried to a worse market than to that of America, where people do not enquire con. cerning a stranger, What is he? but Ilmaz he do? If he has auy useful ait, he is welcome; and if he exercises it, and behaves well!:e will be respected by all that know him: but a mere man of quality, whů on that account wants to live upon he public by some office or salary, will be despised and disregard. ed. The husband:nan is in honour there and even the mechanic, because their employments are useful. The people have a saying, that God Almigliv is him. self a mechan.c, the greatest in the universe; and he

is respected and admired more for the variety, inge · nuity, and utility of liis handicraft works, ihan for

the antiquity of his family. They are pleased with the otiservation of a negro, and frequenily mention it, that Boccarorra (meaning the white man) make de black man werkee, make de horse workee, make de ox workee, make ebery ting workce, only de hog. He, ile hng, no workee; he eai, he c'rink, he walk about, le go to sleen when he please, he libb like a gentleman. According to these opinions of the Americans, one of them wouid think himself more ol·liged to a genealogist, who could prove for him that his an. cestors and relations for ten generations had been plouglumen, siniths, carpenters, turers, weavers, tan. ners, or even shoe-makers, and consequently that they were useful members of society ; than if he could only prove that they were gentlemen, doing Qolbing of value, but living inlly on the labour of

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