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This doctrine, my friends, is reason and wisdom. but, after all, do not depend too much upon your own industry and frugality, and prudence, though excel. lent. things; for they may be blasted, without the Izlessing of Heaven ; and therefore ask that blessing humbly, and be not uncharitable to those that at present seein to want it, but comfort and help them. Re. mnen.ber Job suffered, and was afterwards pros perous. ** And now, to conclude, • Experience keeps a dear school; but fools will learn in no other, and scarce in that; for it is true, we may give advice, but we cannot give conduct,' as poor Richard says. However, remember this, They that will not be counselled, cannot be helped,' as poor Richard says; and, further, that. If you will not hear Reason, she will surely rap your knuckies.'"
Thus the old gentleman ended his harrangue. The people heard it, and approved the doctrine, and immediately practised the contrary, just as if it had been a common sermon; for the auction opened, and they began to buy extravagartly, notwithstanding all his cautions, and their own fear of taxes. I found the good man had thoroughly studied my Al. manacs, and digested all I had dropped on those topics, during the course of twenty-five years. The frequerit mention he made of me, must have tired every one else; but my vanity was wonderfully de. lighted with it, though I was conscious that not a tenth part of the wisdom was my own, which he ascribes tu me, but rather the gleanings that I had made of the sense of al} ages and nations. However, I resolved to be the better for the echo of it; and though I had first determined to buy stuff for a new coat, 1 went away, resolved to wear my old une a little longer. Reader, if thou wilt do the same, thy profit wil be as great as mine.. I am, as ever, thine to serve thee,
INTERNAL STATE OF AMERICA.
Being a true Description of the Interest and Polia
of that vast Continent.
There is a tradition, that in the planting of NewEngland, the first settlers met with many difficulties and hardships: as is generally the case when a ciri. lized people attempt establishing themselves in a wilderness country. Being piously disposed, they sought relief from Heaven, by laying their wauls and distresses before the Lord, in frequent set days of fasting and prayer. Constant meditation and dis. course on these subjects kept their minds glomy and discontented; anu, like the children of Israel, there were many disposed to return to il!a! Egypt which persecution had induced them to abandon. At length, when it was proposed in the Assembly to proclaim another fast, a farmer of plain sense rose and remarked, that the inconvienences they suffered, and concerning which they had so orten wearied Heaven with their complaints, were not so great as they might have expected, a:id were diminishing every day as the colony strengthened ; that the earth began to reward their labour, and to furnishi liberally for their subsistence; that the seas and rivers were found in of fish, the air sweet, the climate healiny ; and above all, that they were there in the full enjoyinen of liberty, civil and religious: he therefore thought, that reflecting and conversing on these subjects would be more comfortable, as tending more to make them contented with their situation; and that it would be inore becoming the gratitude they owed to the Divine Being, if, instead of a fast, they shculd proclaiin a thanksgiving. lis advice was taken; and from thal
day to this thay have, in every year, observad cir. cumstances of public felicity suficient to furnish employment for a thanksgiving day; which is therefore constantly ordered and religiously observert.
I see in the public newspapers of different Stales frequent complaints of hard times, deadness of trade, scarcity of noney, &c. &c. It is not my intention tc assert or maintain that these compiaints are entireJy without foundation. There can be no country or nation existing, in which there will not be some peo ple so circumstanced as to find it hard to gain a live lihood; people, who are rol in the way nf any profitable trade, with whom money is scarce, be. cause they have nothing to give in exchange for it; and it is always in the power of a small number to make a great clamour. But let us take a cool view of the general state of our affairs, and perhaps the prospect will appear less gloomy than has been imagined.
'The great business of the continent is agriculture. For one artizan, or merchant, I suppose we nave at least one hundred farmers, by far the greatest part culuvators of their own fertile lanıls, from whence many of them araw not only food necessary for their subsistence, but the materials of their clothing, so as to need very few foreign suppries : while they have a surplus of productions to dispose of, whereby wealth is gradually accumla:e:. Such has been the good. ness of Divine Providence to these regions, and so favourable the climate, that, since the three or four years of hardship is the first settlement of our fathers here, a famine or scarcity has never beer heard of amongst us ; on the contrary, though some years may
tave tean more, and others less plentiful, there har 1 always been provision enugh for ourselves, and a in quantity :0 spare for exportation. And although the
crons of last year were generally gooit, never was the farmer better paid for the part he can spare conimerce, as the publisher price currents abundantly testify. The lands he possesses are also continually rising in value with the increase of population ; and on the whole, he is enable.t to give such goorl wages to those who work for him, tbai all who are acuuamda
ed with the old world must agree, that in no part o. it are the labouring poor so generally well sed, well lorigel, and well paid, as in the United Stated of America.
If we enter the cities, we find that since the ke. volution, the owners, of houses and lots of ground have had their interest vastly augmented in value; rents have risen to an astonishimg height, and thence encouragement to increase building, which gives em ployment to an abundance of workmen, as does als the increased luxury and splendour of living of th inhabitants thus made richer. These workmen al. demand and obtain much higher wages than any other part of the world would afford them, and are paid in ready, money. This rank of people therefore do not, or ought noi, to complain of hard times; and they make a very considerable part of the city inha. bitants.
At the distance I live from our American fish. eries, I cannot speak of them with any degree of cer. tainty ; but I hare not heard that the labour of the valuable race of men employed in them is worse paid, or that they met with less success, than before the revolution. The whale-men indeed have been deprive ed of one market for their oil, but another, I hear, is opening for them, which it is hoped may be equally advantagevus; and the demand is constantly increas. ing for their spermaceti candles, which therefore bear a much higher price than formerly.
There remain the merchants and shopkeepers. (If these, though they make but a small part of the whole nation, the number is considerable, too great indeed for the business they are enoployed in; for the consumption of goods in every country has its limits; the faculties of the people, that is, their ability to buy and pay, are equal to a certain quantity of merchan dise. If merchants calculatr amiss on this proportion and import too much, they will of course find the sale dull for the overplus, and some of them will say that trade languishes. Thlrey should, and doubtless will, grow wiser by experience, and import less.
If too many artificers in town, and farmers from the country, flattering themselves with the idea of
leading easier lives, turn shopkeepers, the whole paturol quantity of that business divided among them all may aữord too small a share for each, and occasion complaints that trailing is dead. these may also suppose that it is owing 10 scarcity of money, while, in fact, it is not so much from the fewness of buyers, as from the excessive number of sellers, thai the mischiefarises ; and, if every shopkeeping farmer and mechanic would return to the use of his plough and working tools, there would remain of widou's and other women, shop-keepers sufficient for the busi ness, which might then afford theni a comfortable miaintenance. · Whoever has travelled through the various parts o! Europe, and observed how small is the proportion of people in affluence or easy circınastances there, com. pared with those in poverty and misery; the few richi and haughty landlords, the multitude of poor, abject. rack-rented, tythe-paying tenants, and half-paid and half-starved ragged labourers; and views here the happy mediocrity that so generally prevails through out these States, where the cultivator works for himself, and supports his family in decent plenty ; will methinks, see abundant reason to bless Divine irovidence for the evident and great difference in our favour, and be convinced toat no nation known tu us enjoy a greater share of human felicity.
It is irue, that in some of the States there are parties and discords; but let us lonk back, and ask if we were ever without them? Such will exist wherever there is liberty; and perhaps they help to preserve it. By the collision of different sentiments, Sparks of truth are struck out, and political light is oblamed. The different factions, which at present divile us aiin all at the public good; the differences are only about the various modes of promoting it. 'Things, actions, ineasures, and objects of all kinds, present themselves to the ininds of men in such a variety of lights, that it is not possible we should all think alike at the same time on every subject, when hardly the same man retains at all times the saine ideas ofit. Par. ties are therefore the cominon lot of humanity; and ours are by no means more mischievousor less benefici