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"favour this humble attempt to waken the attention to be ai
todas ! a subject of such great national inportance...
"Dr. Franklin ainong the other inquiries that had as the engaged his attention, during a long life spent in the 1.2uninterrupted pursuit of useful improvements, did not let this escape his notice; and many usefui liints, and so tending to perfect the art of navigation, and to melio. fol, az rate the condition of seafaring people, occur in his felinar, work... In France, the art of constructing ships has slabe long been a favourile study, and many inprovements bold oi" in that branch have originaled with them. Among en he the last of the Frenchwen, who have made any con reale siderable improvement in this respect, is M. Le Roy, Bulac who has constructed a vessel well adapted to sati in rivers, where the depth of water is inconsirlerable, and that yet was capable of being navigated at sea with great ease. This he efficied in a greai measure by the particular mode of rigging, which gave the mariners much greater power over tire vessei than they could have when of the usual constructiun.
I do not hear that this improveinent has in any case been adopted in Britain. But the aılvantages that would result from having a vessel of small draught of water to sail with the same steadiness, and io lie equally near the wind, as one inay dio that is sharper built, are so obvious, that many persons have been desirous of falling upon some way to ef. fect it. About London, this has been attempted by means of lee boards (a contrivance now so generally known as not to require to be here particularly des. Criei) and not without effect. But these are sub, Ject to certain inconveniences, that render the use of theni in marry cases ineligible.. .img
Others have attempted to effect the purpose by building vessels with more than one keel; and this contrivance, when, adouled upon proper principles, proinises to be alleaded with the happiest effecis.But hithert that seeins to have been scarcely advert. ed to. Time will be necessary to eradicate common notions of very old standing, before this can be effectually done.,
Mr. W. Broclie, ship-mast adopted a contrivance for this purpose, that seems to JIW v's w lin )
table When en there
moxene who ha
bist, wi Leels
W. Bemorlie, ship-master in Leich, has lately
>e at the same tiine very simple and extremely efti. racious. Necessity, in this case, as in many others, was the mother of invention. He had a sinall, Mar,
-built boai, which was so ill constructed as scarce. kily to admit of carrying a bit of sail on any occasion,
and which was at the same time so lieavy tu be row.
cri, that he found great difficulty in using it for his Pordinary occasions. In reflecting on the means tha*
might be adopte:l for giving this useless cable such a $. hold of the water as to admit of his employing a sai EV, when he found it necessary, it readily occurred tha
ja greater depth of keel would have this tendency. al' But a greater depth of keel, though it would bave be been useful for this purpose, he easily foresaw, would his make his boat Le extremely inconvement ou many * other occasions. To effect both purposes, he thonght Thi of adopting a moveable keel, which would ailmit of till being let down or taken up at pleasure. This idea 23 be immediately carried into effect, by fixing a bar of biron ut the depth he wanted, along each side of the
keel, moving upon binges that armitted of being 12% moved in one direction, but which could not be bent 1 back in the opposite direction. Thus, by means of a
smail chaiu fixed to each end, these moveable keels
could be easily lifted up at pleasure; so that when ?? he was entering into a harbour, or shoal water, he en hail only to bft up his keeis, and the boat was as
capable of being nanaged there, as if he hai wanted Let them entirely; and when he went out to sea, where
there was depth enough, by letting them dowii, the de lee keel took a firin holi of the water, (while the other
Doated loose) and gave such a steadiness to all its movements, as can scarcely be conceived by those who have not experienced it.
This gentleman one day carried me out with hiin in his boat to try it. We inade two experimenis At 6rst, with a moderate breeze, when the moveable kecls were kept up, the boat when laid as near the wind as it could go, made an angle with the wake of about thirty degrees; but wlien the keels were let down, the same angle did not exceed five or six de. grees; being nearly parallel with the course.
Al another time, the wind was right a-head, a bri breeze. When we began to beat up against il trading sloup was very near us, steering the sai course with us. This sloop went through the w3 a good deal faster than we could: but in the cous of two hours beating to windward, we found this the sloop was left behind two feet in three ; though is certain, that if our false keels had got been k down, we could scarcely, in that situation, have ad vanced one root for ner three.
Itis umecessary to point out to seafaring men the be nefits that may be derived from this contrivances certain circiimstances, as these will be very obviou to them.
Notwithstanding the many fruitless attempts that have been made to discover a north-west passag into the South Seas, it wouid seem that this impor ant geographical question is not yet fully decided; for at a meeting of the Academy of Sciences, at Paris, held on the 13th of November last, M. Bauche, firs geographer to the king, read a curious nemoir cor cerning the north-west passage. M. de Mendoza, an intelligent captain of a vessel in the service ol Spain, charged with the care of former establishments
favourable to the marine, has made a careful exami* nation of the archives of several departments: there he has found the relation of a voyage made in the year 1598 by Lorenzo Herrero de Maldonada. There it appears that at the entry into David's Straits, north lat. 60 degrees, and 28 of longitude, counting
from the first meridian, he turned to the west, leaving · Hudson's Bay on the south, and Baffin's Bay on the north.' Arrived at lat. 65 and 297, he went towards the north by the Straits of Labrador, till he reached 76 and 278; and finding himself in the Icy Sea, he turned south-west to lat. 60 and 235, where he found a strait, which separates Asia from Amerira, by which he entered into the South Sea which he called the Straits of Auian. This passage ought to be, ac
ording to M. Bauche, between William's Sound and
lount St. Elias. The Russians and Captain Cook Lave not observed it, because it is very parrow. but L is to be wished, that this important dis overy
would be verified, which has been overlooked for no centuries, in spite of the attempts which have een inade on these coasts. M. Baiche calls this assage the Straits of Ferrer.
POSITIONS TO BE EXAMINED.
1. All food, or subsistence from mankind, arises from the earth or waters.
? Neceasaries of life that are not foods, and all Er the conveniences, have their value estimated by - the proportion of fcod consured while we are em- ployed in procuring them.
3. A smal. people with a large territory, may subsist on the prorluctions of nature, with 110 other la. bour than that of gathering the vegetables and catch.
ing the animals. i 4. A large people with a sinal] territory, find these i insufficient; and, to subst, muat labour the earth, to make it produce greater quantities of vegetable
suitable to the nourishinen of men, and of the animals they intend to eat.
5. From this Jabour arises a great increase of ve. í getable and animal tood, and of materials for clothing: Was fax, wool, silks, &c. The superfluity of these in
wealth. With this wealth we pay for the labour ein úployed in building our houses, cities, &c. which are iherefore only subsistence thus metamorphosed.
6. Manufactures are only another shape into in which so much provisisons and subsistence are turnged, as were in value equal to the manufacture pro. w duced. This appears from bence, that the inanufac.
turer does not, in fact, obtain from the employer. for as labour, more than a mere subsistence, iclund
ing raiment, fuel, and shelter ; all which derive the value from the provisions consumed in procurie them.
7. The produce of the earth, thus converted int manufactures, may be more easily carried into distas markets, than before such conversion.
3. Fair commerce is where equal values are ex changed for equal, the expense of transport included Thus, if it costs A in England, as inuch labour and charge to raise a bushel of wheat, as it costs B i France to produce four gallons of wine, then are fou gallons of wine the fair exchange for a bushel of wheat, A and B meeting at half distance with their coinmodities to make the exchange. The advantage of this fair commerce is, that each party incieases the number of his enjoyments, having, instead of wreat alone, or wine alone, the use of both wheai an] wine.
9. Where the labour and expense of producing both com nodities are known to both parties, bagains will generally be fair and equal. Where wey are known to one party only, bargains will ocen be unequal, knowledge taking its advantage o ignorance.
10. Thus he that carries a thousund bushels of wheat abroad to sell, may not probably obtain so greai a profit thereon, as if he had first turned the Wheat into manufactures, hy subsisting therewith the workinen while producing those manufactures, since there are many expeiliting and facilitating inethods of working, not generally knowls, and strangers to the manufactures, though they know pretty well the expense of raising wheat, are (inacquainted with those short methods of working; and hence, being apt to suppose more labo'ır emplove n the manufacture than there really is, are more easily imposed on in their value, and induced to allow more for them than they are houestly worth.
11. Thus the advantage of having manufactures in a country does not consisi, as is commonly sup. posed, in their highiy advancing the value of rough inatcrials, of wnich they are formed; since, though sixpennyworth of flax may be worth twentv shillings