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(Iseful instruction, whereby the understanding or morals of the youth may at the same tine be improved.
It is required that they should first study and un derstand the lessons, before they are put upon reading them properly ; to which end each boy should have an English dictionary to help him over difficul ties. When our boys read English to us, we are app :: 30 imagine they understand what they read, because we do, and because it is their mother tonguc. But they often read as Parrots speak, knowing little o nothing of the meaning. And it is impossible a reader should give the due modulation to his voice, and pronounce properly, unless his understanding goes before his tongue, and makes himn inaster of ihe senti. ment. Accustoming boys to read aloud what they do not tirst understand, is the cause of those even set tones so common among readers, which, when they have once got a habit of using, they find so difficult to correct; by which means, among fifty readers we scarcely find a good one. For want of good readin', pieces published with a view to influence the minds of men, for their own or the public benefit, lose hall their force. Were there but one good reader in a neighnourhood, a public orator might be heard throughout a nation with the same acivantages, and have the same effect upon his audience as if they stood witnin the reach of his voice.
THE THIRD CLASS. To be taught speaking properly and gracefully; which is near a-kin to good reading, and naturally follows it in the studies of youth. Let the scholars of this class begin with learning thc elements of rhetoric from sume short system, so as to be able to give an account of the most useful tropes and figures. Let all their had habits of speaking, all offences against good grammar, all corrupt or foreign accents, and all improper phrases be pointed out to them. Short speeches from the Roman or other history, or from the parliamentary debates, might be got by heart, and delivered with the proper activn, &c.-Speeches and scenes in our best tragedies an coinculies (avoid.
ing every thing that could injure the morals of youth) might likewise be got by rote, and the boys exercised in delivering or acting them; great care being taken
to form their manner after the truest models. The For their farther improvement, and a little to vary
their studies, let them now begin to read history, after having got by heart a short table of the principal epochs in chronology. They may begin with Rollin's icient and Roman histories, and proceed at proper
ours, as they go though the subsequent classes, with
he best histories of our own nation and colonies. Let $* emulation be excited among the boys, by giving,
weekly, little prizes, or other small encouragements
to those who are able to give the best account of what 1' they have read, as to times, places, names of persons
&c. This will make them read with attention, and ti* imprint the history well in their meinories. In re1 marking on the history, the master will have fine op.
portunites of instilling ir.struction of various kinds, * and improving the morals, as well as the understand3ings, of youth.
The natural and mechanic history, contained in * the Spectacle de la Nature, might also be begun in
this class, and continued through the subsequent
classes, ley other books of the same kind; for, next to in the knowledge of duty, this kind of knowledge is
certainly the most useful, as well as the most entertaining. The merchant may thereby be enabled bet ter tu understand niany commodities in trade; the handicraftsman to iinprove his business by new instruments, mixtures, and materials, and frequently hints are given for new methods of improving land, hat may be set on foot greatly to the advantage of a ountry.
THE FOURTH CLASS. To he taught composition. Writing one's own language well, is the next necessary accomplishinent aster good speaking. It is the writing master's husi
ness to take care that the boys make fair characters, -* and place them straight and even in the lines · but te method form their style, and even to take care that the scrips
and capitals are properly disposed, is the part of the English master. The boys should be put on writing letters to each other on any common occurrences, and on various subjects, imaginary business, &c. colitaining little stories, accounts of their late reading, wbat parts of authors please them, and why ; letters of congratulation, of compliment, of request, of thanks, of recommendation, of allmonition, of conso lation, of expostulation, excuse, &c. In these they should he taught to express themselves clearly, con cisely, and naturally, without affected words or high dowi phrases. All their letters to pass through their naster's hand, who is to point out the faults, advise the corrections, and coinmend what he finds right Some of the best letters published in their own lan guage, as Sir William Temple's, those of Pope and
is friends, and some others, might be set before the youth as models, their beauties pointed out and ex plained by the master, the letters themselves iransäcribed by the scholar.
Dr. Johnson's Ethices Elementa, or Firs! Principles of Jorality, may now be read by the scholars. and explained by the master, to lay a solid foundation vi yirtue and piety in their minds. And as this clay continues the reading of history, let them now, at proper hours, receive some farther instruction in chrcnology and in that part of geography (from the mathematical master) which is necessary to undersiand the maps and globes. Tijey should also be ac. quainted with the modern names of the places they find mentioned in ancient writers. The exercises of good reading, and proper speaking, still continued at suitable times.
To improve the youth in composition, they may now, besides continuing to write letters, begin 10 write little essays in prose, and sometimes in verse; not to make thein poets, but for this reason, that nothing acquaints a lad so speedily with a variety of expression, as the necessity of finding such words and phrases, as will suit the measure, sound, and
shyme of verse, and at the same time well express the sentiment. These essays should all pass under the master's eye, who will point out their faults, and put the writer on correcting them. Where the judgmcut is not ripe enough for forming new essays, let the sentinnents of a Spectator be given, and required to be clothed in the scholars own words; or the cir
umstances of some good story: the scholar to fin expression. Let them be put sometimes on abridg ng a paragraph of a diffuse author: soinetimes o dilating or amplifying what is wrote more closely And now let Dr. Johnson's Noetica, or First Principles of Human Knowledge, containing a logic, or art of reasoning, &c. be read by the youth, and the difficulties that may occur to them be explained by the master. The reading of history, and the exercises of good reading and just speaking, still continued.
In this class, besides continuing the studies of the preceding in history, rhetoric, logic, moral and naiural philosophy, the best English authors may be read and explained ; 7. Tillotson, Milton, Locke, Addisou, Pope, Swift, the higher papers in the Spectator and Guardian, the best translations of Homer, Virgil and Horace, of Telenachus, Travels of Cy. rus, &c.
Once a year, let there be public exercises in the hall; the trustees and citizens present. Then let fine gilt books be given as prizes to such boys as distinguish themselves, and excel the others in any branch of learning, making three degrees of comarison ; giving the best prize to him that perform est, a less valuable one to him that comes up nex o the best; and another to the third. Commenda. tions, encourageinent, and advice to the rest, keep. ing up their "hopes, that, by industry, they may ex. cel another time. The names of those that obtain the prize, to be yearly printed in a list. .
The hours of each day are to be divided and dis posed in such a manner as that some classes may be with the writing master, improving their hands.
others with the mathematical master, learning arithmetic, accorints, geography, use of the globes, draw. ing, mechanics, &c.; while the rest are in the En. glish school, under the English master's care.
Thus instructed, youth will come out of this school fitted for learning any business, calling, oi profession, except in such wherein languages are re. quired; and though unacquainted with any ancient or foreign tongue, they will be masters of their own which is of more immediate and general use; and withal, will have attaired many other valuable ac complishments : the time usually spent in acquiring those languages often without success, being here employed in laying such a foundation of knowledge and ability, as, properly improved, may qualify thein to pass through and execute the several offices of civil life, with advantage and reputation to themselves and country.
ON MODERN INNOVATIONS IN THE ENGLISH
LANGUAGE AND IN. PRINTING.
Philadelphia, Dec. 26, 1789. DEAR SIR, I RECEIVED some time since your Dissertation on the English Language. It is an excellent work, and will be greatly useful in turning the thoughıs of our countrymen to correct writing. Please to accept my thanks for it, as well as for the great honour you have done me in its dedication. I ought to have made this acknowledgement sooner, but much in. disposition prevented me.
I cannot but applaud your zeal for preserving the purity of our language both in its expression and pronunciation, and in correcting the popular errors several of our states are continually falling into with respect to both. Give me leave to mention soine of Hiem, tisough possibly they may have already occur.