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which they sleep till doomsday. Nothing is more coinmo:y in the newspapers, than instances of peo: ple, who, after eating a hearty supper, are found lead a-bed in the inorning.
Another means of preserving health, to be attend. ed to, is the having a constant supply of fresh air in your bed-chainber. It has been a great mistake, the sleeping in rooms exactly closed, and in beds sur ounded by curtains. No outward air, that may come into you, is so unwholesome as the unchanged air, often breathed, of a close chamber. As boiling water does not grow hotter by longer boiling, if tha particles that receive greater heat can escape; so liy. ing bodies do not putrefy, if the particles, as fast as they become putrid, can be thrown off. Nature ex. pels them by the pores of the skin and lungs, and in à free open air, they are carried off; but, iu a close room, we receive then again and again, though they become more and more corrupt. A number of per. sous crowded into a small room, thus spoil the air in a few minutes, and even render it mortal, as in the Black Hole at Calcutta. A single person is said only to spoil a gallon of air per minute, and there. fore requires a longer time w spoil a chamberful, but it is done, however, in proportion, and many putrid disorders have hence their origin. It is recorded of Methusalem, who, being the longest liver, may be supposed to have best preserved his health, that he slept always in the open air; for when he had lived five hundred years, an angel said to him, “ Arise, Methusalem, and build thee an house, foi thou shalt live yet five hundred years longer.” Bug Methusalem answered and said; “If I am to live but five hundred years longer, it is not worth whil to build me an house will sleep in the air as have been used to do.” Physicians after having fu ages contended that the sick should not be indulged with fresh air, have at length discovered that it may do them good. It is therefore to be hoped, that they may in time discover likewise, that it is not hurtful to those who are in health; and that we may then be cured of the aerophobia that at present distresses weak minds, and makes them choose to be stifted and poisoned, rather than leave open the window of a bed chamber, or put down the glass of a coach.
Confined air, when saturated with perspirable matter,* will not receive niore ; and that matter mtist remain in our bodies, and occasion diseases : but to give some previous notice of its being about to be Surtful, by producing certain uneasiness, slight in deed at first, such as, with regard to the lungs, is a trifling sensation, and to the pores of the skin a kind of restlessness which is difficuit to describe, and few that feel it know the cause of it. But we may recollect, that sometimes, on waking in the night, we have, if warmly covered, found it difficult to get to sleep again. We turn often, without finding repose in any position. 'I his agettiness, to use a vulgar expression for want of a better, is occasioned wholly by an uneasiness in the skin, owing to the retention of the perspirable matter--the bed-clothes having received their quantity, and, being saturated, refusing to take any more. To become sensible of this by an experiment, let a person keep his position in the bed. but throw off the bed-clothes and suffer fresh air to approach the part uncovered of his body; he will
hen feel that part suddenly reiresneit; for the air will iminediately relieve the skin, by receiring, licking up, and carrying off, the load of perspirable mat. ier that incoinoded it. For every portion of cool air that approaches the warm skin, in receiving its part of that vapour, receives therewith a degree of heat, that rarefies and renders it lighter, when it will be pushed away, with its burden, by cooler and there. fore heavier fresh air; which, for a inoment, sup.
lies its place, and then, being likewise :hanged, and warmed, gives way to a succeeding quantity. This is the order of nature, to prevent ani'nals beng infected by their own perspiration. He will now be sensible or the difference between the part exposed
• What physician and the perspirable matter, Id the vapo hob Proves off from our bodies, from the long, and through he pores
son. The quantity of shis to maid to be five eights of what me
to the air, and that which, remaining simk in the bed, denies the air access: for this part now manj. fests its imeasiness more distinctly by the compari son, and the seat of the uneasiness is more plainly perceived, than when the whole surface of the body was affected by it.
Here then is one great and general cause of nn pleasing dreams. For when the body is uneasy, the mind will be disturbed by it, and disagreeable ideas of various kinds will, in sleep, be the natural conse. quences. The remedies, preventive and curative, follow.
I. By eating moderately (as before advised for health's sake) less perspirable matter is produced in a
given time; hence the hed-clothes receive it longer · before they are saturated ; and we may, therefore, *eep longer, before we are made uneasy by their re. fusing to receive any inore.
2. By using thinner and more porous bed-clothes, which will suffer the perspirable matter more easily to pass through them, we are less incominoded, such being longer tolerable.
3. When you are awakened by this uneasiness, and find you cannot easily sleep again, get out of bed, beat up and turn your pillow, shake the bed clothes well, with at least twenty shakes, then throw the bed open, and leave it to cool ; in the meanwhile, continuing undrest, walk about your chamber, till your skin has had time to discharge its load, which it will do sooner as the air may be drier and colder. When you begin to feel the cold air unpleasant, then return to your bed; and you will soon fall asleep, and your sleep will be sweet and pleasant. All the scenes presented to your fancy will be of the pleasing kind. I am often as agreeably entertained with them, as by the scenery of ani opera. If you happen to be tou indolent to get out of bed, you may, instead of in lift your bed-clothes with one arm and leg, so as to draw in a good deal of fresh air, and by letting them fall, force it oix again ; this, repeated twenty times, will so a zar them of the pe spirable matter thei have 'mbx sed, as to perrit vx sleeping well for
some time afterwards. But this iatter method is not equal to the former.
Those who do not love trouble, and can afford to have two beds, will find great luxury in rising, when they wake in a hot bed, and going into the cool one. Such shifting of beds would also be of great service lo persons ill of a fever, as it refreshies and frequentiy procures sleep. A very large bed, that will admit 2 reinoval so distant from the first situation as to be cool and swert, may, in a degree answer the same eng.
(one or two observations more will conclude this linle piece. Care must be taken when you lie down, lo dispose your pillow so as to suit your man ner of placing your head, and to be perfectiy easy; llien place your limbs so as not to bear inconvenient. ly hard upon one another; as for instance, the joints of your ancles : for though a bad position may at first give but little pain, and be hardly noticed, yet a con. tinuance will render it less tolerable, and the uneasiness may come on while you are asleep, and disturb your imagination.
These are the rules of the art. Bui though they will generally prove effectual in producing the enä intenderl, there is a case in which the most punctual observance of them will be totally fruitless. I need not mention the case to you, niy dear friend: but my Account of the art would be imperfect without it. The case is, when the person who desires to have the pleasant dreams has not taken care to preserve whai is necessary, above ail things,
A GOOD CONSCIENCE
ADVICE TO A YOUNG TRADESMAN.
Written anno 1748.
TO WY YRJEN), A. B. As you have desired it of ine, I write the following
vunts, which have been of service to me, and may id observed, be so to you. ,
REMEMBER that time is money. He that can earn leva shillings a-day by his labour, and goes abroad, li sits idle one half of that day, though he spends but six vence during his diversion or idleness ought na to reckon that the only expense; he has really s ilt, or rather thrown away, five shillings besides. - Remember that credit is money. If a man lets his money lie in my hands after it is due, he gives me ine Interest, or so much as I can make of it during that time. This amounts to a considerable sum where a mau has good and iarge credit, and makes rood use of it,
Remeinber that money is cl a prolific generating nature. Money can heget money, and its offsr:. 'ng can beget more, and so on. Five słiillings turned is six ; turned again is seven and three pence; and so sa till it becomes an hundred pounds. The more there is of it, the fore it produces every turning, so what the profits rise quicker and quicker. lie that kills a breeding sow, destroys all her offspring to the thousandth generation. He that miurders a crown, destroys all that it might have produced, even scores of pounds.
Remember that six pounds a-year is but a groat a-day. For this little eum (which may be daily wasted either in time or expense, imperceived) a nian of credit may, on his own security, have the constant possession and use of an hundred pounds. So much in stock, briskly turned by an industrious man, produces great advantage.
Remember this saying. « The good paymaster is Lord of another man's purse." He that is known to