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To me, after all my eayer pursuits, no solid pleasures r.cw remain, but the reflection of a long life spent in meaning well, the sensible conversation of a few good lady ephemeræ, and now and then a kind sinile and a tupe from the ever amiahlo Brilliant.
MORALS OÉ CHESS. Plaring at chess is the most ancient and unirer. sal gaine known among men; for its original is beyond the memory of history, and it has, for number. less ages, been the amusement of all the civilized nations of Asia, the Persians, the Indians, and the Chinese. Europe has had it aivove a thousand years; the Spaniards have sprerd it over their parts of America, and it begins to make its appearance in these States. It is so interesting in itself, as not to need the view of gain to induce engaging in it; and thence it is never played for money. Those, therefore, who have leisure for such diversions, cannot find one that is more innocent; and the following piece, written with a view to correct (among a few young friends) some little improprieties in the prac. tice of it, shows, at the same time, that it may, in its effects on the mind, he not inerely innocent, but advantageous, to the vanquished as well as the victor.
The game of chess is not merely an idle amusement. Several very val. able qualities of the mind useful in the course of human life, are to be acquirea or strengthened by it, so as to become habits, ready on all occasions. For life is a kind of chess, in which we have points to gain, and coinpetitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, thai are, in somo degree, the effects of prudence or the want of it. By playing at chess then, we learn,
1. Foresight, which looks a little into futurity, considers the consequences that may attend an acuon · for it is continually occurring to the player,
s If I move this piece, what will be the advantage of my new situation? What use can my adversary make of it to annoy me? What other moves can í anake to support it, and to defend myself froin his attacks!”
Jl. Circumspection, which surveys the whole chess. board, or scene of action, the relations of the several pieces and situations, the dangers they are respec. lively exposed to, the several possibilities of their aiding each other, the probabilities that the adver. sary inay take this or that inove, and attack this on the other piece, and what different means can be used to avoid his stroke, or turn its consequences against him.
111. Caution, not to make our moves too hastily. This habit is best acquired by observing strictly the laws of the game, such as, “ If you touch a piece, you must move it somewhere; if you set it down you must let it stand :” and it is therefore best that these rules should be observed; as the game thereby be, comes more the innaye of hunan life, and particularly of war; in which, if you bave incautiousiy put yourself into a bad and dangerous position, you cannot obtain your eneiny's leave lo withdraw your troops, and place the:n more securely, vui you inust abi:le all the consequences of your rashness.
Audi, lastly, we learn by chess the habit of not being discouraged by present bad appearances in the state of our affairs, the habit of hoping for a favour. able change, and that of persevering in the search of resources. The game is so full of events, there is such a variety of turns in it, the fortune of it is so subject to juduen vicissitudes, and one so frequently, after long contemplation, discovers the mears of ex.
ricating one's self from a supposed insurmountable difficulty, that one is encouraged to continue the con test to the last, iu hope of victory by our own skill, or at least of giviny a stale inare, by the negligence of our adversary. And whoever corisiuers, what in chess he often sees instances of, that particular pieces of success are apt to produce presumption, and its consequent inattep.ion, by which the loss may be re covered, will learn not to be too muro discouraged by
the present success of his adversary, nor to despair of final good fortune, upon every little check he receives ti the pursuit of it.
That we may, therefore, be induced more frequently 100 choose this beneficial ainusement, in preterence to others, which are not attended with the same advantages, every circumstance which may increase the pleasure of it should be regarded; and every action or word that is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way may give uneasiness, should be avoided, as contrary to the immediate intention of both the players, which is to pass the time agreeably.
Therefore, first, If it is agreed to play according to the strictest rules; then those rules are to be cxactly observed by both parties, and should not be insisted og for one side, while deviated from by the other for this is not equitable.
Secondly, If it is agreed not to observe the rules exactly, but one party demands indulgences, he should then be as willing to allow them tɔ the other.
Thirdly, No false move should ever be made to extricate yourself out of a difficulty, or to gain an advantage. There can be no pleasure in playing with a person orice detected in such unfair practices.
Fourthly, If your adversary is long in playing, you ought not to hurry him, or to express any uneasiness at his delay. You should not sing, nor whistle, nor look at your watch, nor take up a book to read, nor make a tapping with your feet on the boor, or with your fingers on the table, nor do any thing that may disturb his attention. For all inese things displease; and they do not show your skill in playing, but your craftiness or your rudeness.
Fifthly, You ought not to endeavour to amuse and deceive your adversary, by pretending to have malle bad moves, and saying that you have now lost the game, in order to make him secure and careless. and inattentive to your schenies; for this is fiaud and deceit, no: skill in the game.
Sixthly. You must not, when you have gained a Siclory, use any triumphing or insulirig expression, nor show low much pleasure; but endeavour to console your adva -sary, and make hiin lesu dissatisfied
with himself, by cvery kind of civil expression that may be used with truth; such as, “ You unders:and ulre game better than I, but you are a litile inatientive; or, ou play too fast; or, you had the best of the gitme, but something liappened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it in my favour."
Şevenibly, If you are a spectator while others play, observe the most perfect silence. For if you giva arivice, you offend both partics; him against whom you give it, because it may cause the loss of his ganie; and hiin, in whose favour you gave it, because, though it be good, and he follows it, he loses the pleasure he might have had, if you had permitted him to think until it had occurred to himself. Even after a move, or moves, you must not, by replacing the pieces, show how it might have been placed bet. ter; for that displeases, and may occasion disputes and doubts about their true situation. All talking to the players lessens or diverts their attention, and is therefore unpleasing. Nor should you give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise or motion. If you do, you are unworthy to be a spec tator. If you have a mind to exercise or show your judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an opportunity, not in criticising, or meddling with, or counselling the piay of others.
Lastly, If the game is not to be played rigorously, according to the rules abovementioned, then moderate your desire of victory over your adversary, and be pleased with one over yourself. Snatch not ea. gerly at every advantage offered by his unskilfulnese or inattention; but point out to him kindły, that by such a move he places or leaves a piece in danger and unsupported; that by another he will put hi king in a perilous situation, &c. By this generous civility (so opposite to the unfairness above forbid den) you may, indeed, happen to lose the game te your own opponent, but you will win what is bet ter, his esteem, his respect, and his affection; to gether with the silent approbation and good-will o inpartial spectators.
THE ART OF PROCURING PLEASANT
BEING WATITEN AT HER REQUEST. As a great part of our life is spent in sleep, during which we have Soinetimes pleasing and sometime painful dreams, it becomes of some consequence to obtain the one kind, and avoid the other; for whe ther real or inaginary, pain is pain, and pleasure is pieasure. If we can sleep without dreaming, it is well that painful dreains are avoided. If, while we sleep, we can have any pleasing dreains, it is, as the French say, 'ant gague, so much added uw peş. sure of life.
Tu this end it is, in the first place, necessary to be careful in preserving health, by due exercise and great temperance ; for, in sickness, the imagination is disturbed ; and disagreeable, sometimes terrible ideas are apt to present themselves. Exercise should precede meals, not immediately follow thein: the first proinoles, the latter, unless moderate, obstructs digestion. If after exercise, we feed sparingly, the digestion will be casy and gooi, the body lighisoine, the temper cheerful, and all the animal functions performed agreeable. Seep, when it follows, will be natural and undisturbed. While inuulence, with full feeding, occasions night-inares and horrors inex pressible : we fall from precipices, are assa'ilted hy wild beasts, murderers, and demons, and experience every rariety of distress. Observe, however, thal he quantities of food and exercise are relative things: hose who move much may, and indeed outghi, to eat more; those who use little exercise, should eat little. In general, mankind, since the improve neut of cook ery, eat about twice as much as nature requires Suppers are not bad, if we have not dined; but rest less nights naturally follow hearty suppers, after full dinners. Indeed, as there is a difference in consti tutions, soine rest well after these meals; it costs them only a frightful dream and an apoplexy, afte